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PSYC 101
Catherine( Cathy) Rankin

Chapter 8 – Memory Martin showers in the locker room and gets burned by the water when water is flushed and jumps out of shower. Later, he hears the flush go off again and jumps out. Jumping out is the Unconditioned response. Clicker Early understanding of Memory: Associative Models Associationism Belief that memory results from mental connections between ideas and concept. Herman Ebbinghaus(spelling?)Used himself as the only subject. In order to remember something we must: encode (get information to our brain) store ( keep the info somewhere safe) retrieve ( get the info back out later) Serial position effect: From a list of words, the first few words and the last few words are more likely to be remembered. Beginning of the list has a primacy effect. There is nothing in the brain when the list starts. Easy to remember. The end of the list has a recency effect. It’s recent. People think that primacy effect is long term memory. On the other hand, recency effect is short term. Sensory Memory store: Function: holds information long enough to be processed for basic physical characteristics. Capacity: large- can hold many items at once Duration: very brief retention of images - 0.3 seconds for visual info and 2 seconds for auditory information. Divided to two main subtypes: iconic memory and echoic memory (visual and auditory) Sperling (1960)  Sperling: presented a matrix of letters for 1/20 seconds  Subjects report as many letters as possible  Sperling showed people can see and recall ALL the letters momentarily  Sounded low, medium or high immediately after matrix disappeared  Tone signalled 1 row to report and recall was almost perfect Memory for image fades after 1/3 seconds or so, making report of entire display hard to do. Beyond sensory memory, how do we encode info? Two types of encoding: Automatic Processing – requires little or no effort and very difficult to shut off - “DOG”. Not learned – space, time and frequency. Learned – Reading, driving and studying. We can learn automatic processing! Effortful Processing – “949 -7626”Short term Memory store Function – conscious processing of info Where info is actively worked on Capacity – limited (holds 7 +/- 2 items) Duration – brief storage ( about 30 seconds) Longer than 30 seconds? Maintenance rehearsal - Mental or verbal repetition of information. Allows information to remain in working memory longer than the usual 30 seconds. Remembering a phone number for a short period of time! Without rehearsal, memory fades. Higher level processes can influence the capacity of short term memory. Long term memory store: Once information passes from sensory to working memory, it can be encoded into long-term memory Encoding – process that controls movement from working to long term memory store Retrieval – process that controls the flow of… Effortful processing – requires attention and conscious effort Rehearsal – conscious repetition of information To maintain it in consciousness To encode it for storage Practice effect – Ebbinghaus found that Memory is better when there have been more practice trials. Spacing effect – distributed practice is better than mass practice Long-term Memory store Function: organizes and stores information – more passive form of storage than working memory. Capacity – unlimited! Duration: thought by some to be permanent. Encoding transfers info from STM to LTM Forgetting theories:  Retrieval Failure – “I know it’s in there but I can’t get it out”  Encoding Failure – Never got in there properly in the first place. Lack of practice etc.  Role of time – memories erode or fade over time  Interference theories Types of long term memories:Explicit (Declarative) with conscious recall: Facts – general knowledge (Semantic memory). Knowing what the word “restaurant” means etc. Knowing how many how many continents there are. Personally experienced events (Episodic memory): Thinking about the last experience you had at the restaurant. The last “episode” in your experiences. Implicit (Nondeclarative) without conscious recall: Skills-motor and cognitive – Riding a bike Dispositions – classical and operant conditioning effects Encoding Failure Demo: What letters accompany the number 5 on your phone? You see it often but it doesn’t register in your head. How many maple leaves are on the tails side of a Canadian penny? Even though we see it every day, we don’t really know details because we don’t put effort in remembering such things. Role of time: Decay Theory  Memories fade away or decay gradually if unused  Time plays critical role  Ability to retrieve information declines with time after original encoding  Problem: Many things change with time. Something else may cause interference Interference: Proactive Interference: Something learned earlier disrupts something learned later. Retroactive Interference: Something learned later disrupts something learned earlier.  Without int
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