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Lecture 2

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PSYC 101
Catherine( Cathy) Rankin

Lecture 2 Forward Conditioning: Delayed conditioning: The onset of the CS (light) precedes the onset of the US (shock) and the light remains on for the first part of the shock. Amigdula(sp?) used. Trace conditioning: the onset of the CS precedes the onset of the US and the light goes off before the shock begins. Stored in hippocampus. Simultaneous conditioning: The CS (light) and the US (shock) come on and go off at the same time. Backward Conditioning: The US (shock) occurs before the CS goes on. Perhaps the light indicates that the US is over.  The CS should be RIGHT before the US for optimum learning. For example, one second delay. Emotional Conditioning: For example: Grandma cooking a particular dish which you smell one day. Instigates several memories. John Watson (Father of Behaviourism) believed completely in nurture and not nature. This is a prime example of why Watson believed this. He took a toddler and talked to the mom and said the kid’s name was Little Albert. Asked the mom what Albert doesn’t like the most. Mom said the kid hates loud bangs etc. So Watson took Little Albert and let him play with a furry animal (Albert plays with it and has fun) and then suddenly a surface is struck with a hammer to make a loud sound. Albert now associated furry things with loud noises and was now scared of furry animal. Five days later Albert showed generalized fear to other white furry objects. STIMULUS GENERALIZATION. Stimulus Discrimination: Baby learns a word and then calls everyone with that word. For example: mama.  After getting ill from eating her friends thanksgiving turkey, Natalia couldn’t stand the sight or smell of turkey. Then her friend baked a chicken and Natalia thought it sounded good. This illustrates: Discrimination! Not generalization. Conditioned Taste Aversion: You eat something and it makes you throw up. One-trial learning. The interval between CS and US can be really long. Retained for a really long time. Something we are “prepared’ to learn. The same principle can be used to control predation. For example: Wolves eat sheep. Let’s say owner of sheep kills sheep and laces it with something that would make the wolf sick. If the wolf eats the sheep, he won’t be happy and will never eat the sheep again.People who create ads have learned to use these principles extremely well: Conditioned or learned stimulus ---> Unconditioned stimulus – Attractive person ---- > Unconditioned Response – Pleasant feeling. Conditioned or Learned Stimulus – Product ---> Unconditioned response – Pleasant feeling Examples of Classical Conditioned Emotional Responses:  Sound of bell at the end of class Sound of a siren behind us as we drive sound of a Dentist’s drill the smell of chocolate or cinnamon Conditional Emotional Responses: Phobias are an unreasonable fear of specific objects or situations, learned through classical conditioning. Phobias are probably an example of conditional emotional responses. We can treat phobias through Classical Conditioning. We can also: Counterconditioning: trying to condition against something you’re already conditioned to do. Systematic desensitization: You have a fear of spiders. You set up a hierarchy of fears. For example, telling someone they have a spider on them is much more fearful than telling them that there might be a spider in the room. Once you have this, you practice relaxation treatments. Then you place the lowest, least hierarchy fear and ask the patient to raise a finger every time they feel stressed. Pairing relaxation with a fearful thing. Treatment of drug addiction, bedwetting etc.: Just keeping someone away from a drug does not cure drug addiction. Example: Vietnam War. A high proportion of soldiers took heroin (lots of jungles etc.). Very hard to get rid of this addiction. When they had to go home and get off the drugs, the relapse rate was very low. The cues for drug taking included tropical climate/high humidity/sounds of bombs etc. Didn’t associate drug taking with the environment at home. Consequences of Behaviour: Classical conditioning does not require active participation on the part of the learner. Skill learning and Problem Solving: Operant/Instrumental Conditioning:  Requires active thinking and participation by the learner  Called operant conditioning because the learner is learning to operate on the world in order to get rewards and avoid punishments.Thorndike: set up Puzzle boxes which involved a reward. Thorndike concluded that this was trial and error learning. Thorndike’s Law of Effect: Responses that lead to positive outcomes are more likely to be repeated while responses that lead to negative outcomes are less likely to be repeated. Basic assumptions of operant conditioning: Living beings are behaviour emitters, and some behaviour has consequences. Behaviour becomes more of less likely, depending on its consequences. A response followed by a satisfying event will be repeated. A response followed by an unsatisfied event is less likely to be repeated. A response followed by no consequence will tend to disappear. Principles of Reinforcement: Reinforcer- any event that increases the frequency of the preceding event Positive reinforcers – Introduce positive stimulus (ex. Food) Negative reinforcers – Remove negative stimulus (ex. Electric shock, snooze button! Causes alarm sound to go away) Behaviour goes UP. Being able to wake up JUST before the alarm goes off and being able to press the snooze button before alarm goes off. Reinforcers ALWAYS strengthen behaviour. B.F. Skinner – believed in nurture, not nature. Operant chamber (Skinner box) – has a lever with a pellet dispenser. Rat pushes lever + gets food pellet. Soundproof chamber with a bar or key that an animal presses or pe
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