PSYC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Occipital Lobe, Temporal Lobe, Parietal Lobe

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10 Feb 2016
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The Nervous System: BRAIN
Cerebral Cortex
Gyrus (gyri): flat bits. Sulcus (sulci): are the fold
themselves
scrunched up to allow more information
Lateral Fissure: helps to form the temporal lobe
Sensory or association
Occipital lobe: vision and colour - only in vision
auditory cortex (temporal lobe): language,
auditory input
Parietal lobe: touch
Sensory Cortex (one modality): responding to one
morality
Association Cortex (cross-modal rep):
they link this knowledges together
you can pull together dierent sensory
Brain Views
Axial slice: cutting through - see the eyes, the
nose, front of the page (horizontal)
coronal: parallel with the face - spinal cord
sagittal slice: cutting down the midline - you can
see the spinal cord
Cortical distribution of gray and white matter
gray matter: all the cell bodies, all the dendrites
white matter: looks white and fatty to the eye -
main component: myelin sheath
Inter-individual cortical variability
dierence in brain structures
convert each participant’s brain into a template
brain -> normalization
convert it down to that standard template
Mapping the brain
Wilder Penfield
cortical ablation (for epilepsy)
electrical stimulation of the cortex
sensory and motor homunculi
brain surgery for epilepsy - where it originated
from
he would surgically remove the epileptic
focus
cut away an area of scalp in order to get into the
brain
aects:
Motor/Premotor: movements - body parts
would twitch
homunculi
Pariental: somatosensory/visual
hallucinations - body feels like they’re
being touched
Occipital: visual hallucinations
cause visual aects — this area
was crucial in handling vision
Prefrontal: nothing —> “silent cortex"
Temporal: visual auditory, hallucinations,
whole memories
The Homunculus (little man)
discovered by Enfield by electrical stimulation
Topographical representation: is frequently
referred to as homunculus
the feet and toes are large
Size proportionate to sensitivity
Internal (visceral) regions
Why are eye and ear regions small?
not very dexterous w/ eye/ear regions
somatosensory is related to the touch of
your eyes and ears - but we don’t need
that?
Connecting the Two Hemispheres
the crossing-over principle:
right hemisphere controls left half of body,
left visual field
left hemisphere controls right half of body,
right visual field
Plasticity I - Experience
to what extend is it set like plaster?? childs brain
is very plaster.
is the brain set like plaster (in adults)?
structural changes with practice of novel
skills
re-organisation following limb amputation
he had people juggle for many days — eventually
they learned how to
Plasticity II - Phantom Limb Syndrome
following amputation, adjacent sensory cortex in
the homunculus takes control of the vacated
tissue
touch tot he adjacent body zones is
experienced in the missing limb
brain itself hasn’t been injured but this is people
who have suered limb amputation, and they
experience touch after the damage of the
amputated limb
the brian area is still intact - therefore, the brain
thinks that it is still there
translated into sensation
brain restructures itself - information that
comes from the face is linked with the arm
movement.
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