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Lecture 17

PSYC 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Color Constancy, Subjective Constancy, Depth Perception

Course Code
PSYC 101
Luke Clark

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Sensation & Perception 4: CONSTANCY/OTHER SENSES
Perceptual Constancy
our perception is stable despite dramatic changes in incoming sensory signals (Sensation)
shape constancy: across dierent viewing angles
colour constancy: across dierent lighting conditions
there are individual dierences in how people achieve colour constancies
size constancy: across dierent distances (—> depth perception)
Depth Perception
Pictorial (Monocular) Cues
things you can get from a 2D representation - artists know huge amounts of
Linear Perspective (railroad - forms a triangle because of the perspective — they are
Texture Gradient - when looking at landscapes and the material that is close to you, you can
see high resolution detail
Interposition 0- objects that are further back in a cluttered seen, the view of them is partially
blocked by other objects.
Relative Height (elevation)
Illusions based on Pictorial Cues
Ponzo Illusion
when the closer line looks shorter than the further line (train tracks perspective)
Muller-Lyer Illusion
particular lines that have arrow pointing in >—< or pointing out <—>
people think that the one pointing in is longer than the one pointing out.
Other Monocular Cues: Shading
circles on outside bulge out towards us
circles on inside appear hollowed out
we assume that objects are lit from about
The Amazing Ames Room
Another Monocular Cue: Motion Parallax (one eye)
Useful when we are moving: objects closer than our fixation move in opposite direction to us
when you travel on train, the objects seem flashing by in the opposite direction, and the
objects in the horizon are moving to you
Binocular Cues: Convergence and Disparity (2 eyes: make use to binocular cues)
CONVERGENCE: Eyes turn inwards for near objects —> you can sense the angle (and thus
distance) from the EYE MUSCLES
BINOCULAR/RETINAL DISPARITY: objects are closer generate 2 retinal images that are more
if the object is far from you, it is projecting onto the similar point onto the retina on
both eyes. When you pull the blue square down, the point will diverge
Anatomy of Taste
Tastants dissolve in saliva and stimulate the tips of taste receptor cells.
each taste bud contacts the branch of a cranial nerve at its base
5 types of taste receptors: salt, sour, bitter, sweet, umami
flavor is the combination of taste and smell experiences
Anatomy of Smell (olfaction)
Olfactory Receptors
pattern coding enables 339 receptors to recognize 10,000 dierent odours
touch receptors respond to stimulation within their receptive fields: pressure, vibration,
pain receptors populate all body tissues that feel pain; around bones and within muscles and
internal organs as well as under the skin surface
imaging of pain
physical pain: capsaicin gel ruled into upper arm
right arm
emotional pain (distress, unpleasantness): anterior cingulate cortex
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