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The Biological Basis of Behaviour.docx

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PSYC 101
Peter Graf

The Biological Basis of Behaviour 10/22/2012 8:02:00 AM Research Report Introduction: Texting while driving.My position on this thing is it should be legal; good reasons to support it!! Not necessarily have to focus on all aspects of the reasons for the topic; focus on something and pursue it ! PART ONE. Neurons: Nerve cells specialized for communications 100 billion cells with – 160 trilion connections among them, Glial Cells: Support cells in the nervous system. Much smaller than neurons, but 10 times more numberous that neurons. Essential for myelinations of neurons, blood-brain barrier, repair , removal of debris, etc. PARTS OF NEURON. Myelinization creates insulation of current on the neurons; and also helps speed neural impulses. Spaces b/w myelin sheath on the neurons are called Nodes of Ranvier Cell Body function is to figure out if it has enough message to create a new message and process an action potential at the action potential. “All-or- nothing effect.” ACTION POTENTIAL -A neural message; a brief shift in a neurons electrical charge that travels along an axon. Axon can be considered as a hose; pipe. When nothing; no stimulation is going on; negative charged particles are inside the cell and positive ones are on the outside. The resting potential is (-70mV). (+ Sodium) (-Potassium) Through action potential, the ion channels open; sodium flows in and potassium out through the semi-permeable membrane on the axons. Repetition of this occurs as the current travels along the axon. Absolute Refractory Period -A brief time period (-2ms) during which another action potential cannot occur; when system is “over polarized.” Coding Stimulus Intensity Stimulus intensity if focused on the frequency can influence the levels of action potential. THE NEURON: Alzhemires disease is because acetyl choline asterase is inhibiters. Changing the number of receptors can influence the the biologhical and behaviours of humans; via drugs etc or increasing or decreasing the inhibition of receptors. PART TWO: COMMUNICATION WITHIN & B/W NEURONS -Action potentials travel along the axon and arrive at the terminal buttons -Chemical Messengers (neurotransmitters=NT) are stored in sunaptic vesicles. -When the action potential reaches the terminal button, vesicles fuse with pre-synaptic membrane. -NT is released into the synaptic cleft the microscopic gap b/w the terminal button of one neuron and the cell membrane of another neuron. -NT binds to receptors in a lock-and-key fashion. -The activity of the NT is halted via (1) chemical breakdown or (2) reuptake into the pre-synaptic axon terminal. POST-SYNAPTIC POTENTIALS (PSPs) -Action potential has to occur at the threshold point at a certain point and it shoots upto +40mV, from the resting potential of -70mV. -Excitary neurotransmitters cause to go to +40 while inhibitory will cause to go lower than -70mV; eg -80 or -90. In the soma the potential is always changing. -PsPs are voltage changes at a receptor site on the post synaptic cell membrane. Integrating Postsynaptic Potentials: -SPATIAL SUMMATION (summing from inputs from different areas of the neuron) Occurs when two or more post synaptic potentials occur simultaneorusly at different receprotr sites at the same neuron. -TEMPORAL SUMMATION (build up over time of voltage potentials) NEUROTRANSM
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