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University of British Columbia
PSYC 101
Michael Souza

Psychology 101 7th September, 2012 Lecture 2: A Brief History of Biological and Cognitive Psychology Slide 4 cardiac hypothesis: thought that the heart is controlling the mind brain hypothesis: we are still sticking with this hypothesis nowadays rationalism: if I think about it enough, i will be able to gure out reexes: we do not need a brain to have reexes; the re case (not true, not fast enough) dualism: he believes they must have some level of things connecting them- the pineal glen; he believes the soul or the mind would interact with the brain; the brain and the mind are totally different things; the pineal glen has nothing to do with the soul Slide 5 materialism: same as the brain hypothesis undifferentiated mass: every part is equal to each other in terms of functioning; true in some species- e.g. rats localization of function: different parts of the brain are responsible for different function Phrenology: when the certain part of the brains used more or exercised more, it will be bigger; can be examined by touching the head/ skull; not true become the brain will be grown into a certain size; problematic (increases pressure in the skull, may kill you); Gall is only right on different parts of the brain have different functions (localization of function) Slide 6 Wilder Peneld- greatest Canadian ever lived - cut of a certain part of the brain to avoid seizure - although there are lots of nerves, there is no pain receptor in the brain; people get headache because there is pain receptor in the spaces of the brain and inside the skull - he used a needle-like device and give the brain electro signal/ current into it and simulation things in peoples brain (e.g. they can see somethings that is not there, like colours) - prefrontal (silent cortex): he believed that because it has no response with the electro current, it is only spaces for human evolution; very wrong, it is actually the most important part in human for cognitive system (?) Slide 7 - neuron: very fast but slower in electrical trans-mission; they are not connected to each other but use chemical to connect to each other Slide 8 structuralism: looking inside yourself and realize some neurons happens, e.g. emotions (cognitive study) ~> introspection - not scientic: only you can experience and explain it - memories help developments (experience) Slide 9 - concern on how you see things - see things in object as a whole - cant help to see two triangles, while theres none - can see two faces or a vase - hard to see both (e.g. faces and vase) at the same time 1 Psychology 101 10th September, 2012 Lecture 3: A Brief History of Biological and Cognitive Psychology (contd) Slide 10 hysterical patients - describes people who have phycological illness/ disorder The unconscious - Freudian divides this disorder not as biological - theres toxic content in the unconscious Slide 11 behaviourism (black box) - dark age of psychology - we cannot see the mind, and because we cannot see it, we cannot study it - we can study behave because we can see it - the only thing we can see is stimulus response associations - reinforcement learning and punishing certain behaviours Slide 12 - cognitive revolution kids error: kids even cross-culturally even make the same mistakes - the Piagets conversation task - A=C, but kids tend to say C has more water because its taller - understands how kids develop their thinking language production: mental mechanism in kids computer analogy: using computers and technology to help understanding humans mind Slide 13 - study how brain injuries effect cognitive abilities - tells us whats the function of a certain area in the brain surgical removal of the hippocampus: no able to produce new memory after the removal Slide 14 phantom limb syndrome: even they lost their arms, they can see feel it - neighbor nerves taking over the part - dual sensation (e.g. face taking over the hands part) Slide 15 PET scanner - study the biology of the mind - can see the brain without opening it and in short amount of time MRI scanner - very detailed - can see blood ow - highly metabolic organ, 1/3 blood are in the brain 2Psychology 101 Research Methods Slide 7 - as you grow older, your brain is not as sharp as when you were young - using the old hypothesis to study, learn and develop Slide 8 naturalistic observation: behave how people are usually behave, not like in a lab cause they might changed a bit in behaviour case study: studying a single person in incredible detail, very thorough rich sense of the person; limitation, might not applied to everyone; needed to be generalized correlational study: e.g. attendance vs midterm result; limitation, by changing the properties might have big affects on the results Slide 9 manipulation and control: controlling the groups with their properties - expectancy for improvement e.g. one group has sugar pills (vitamin), another has true pills subject: cannot manipulate, e.g. sex, age; simply true about you independent: we can manipulate, e.g. treatment dependent: can be measure, e.g. how many digits can people remember construct: e.g. how to measure love? observing their behaviour; time spend with the person; what they are willing to do for the other person; force to separate the couple and see how they are miserable; count how many times they
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