PSYC 102 Lecture Notes - Abraham Maslow, Lateral Hypothalamus, Hypothalamus

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Psychology 102: Developmental, Social, Personality, and Clinical Psychology
Lecture #12 - February 26, 2013
Motivation and Work - Chapter 11
A need or desire that (a) energizes behaviour and (b) directs it towards a goal
Theories of motivation:
o Instinct
o Drive-reduction
o Arousal
o Hierarchy of needs
Instinct Theory:
Instincts: complex behaviours that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are
not learned
Strengths: consistent with animal literature
Weaknesses: thousands of instincts needed to explain human behaviour
o Labelling, not explaining
Drive-Reduction Theory:
A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive)
Motivates an organism to satisfy the need
Need (for food, water etc.) → Drive → Drive-reducing behaviour (eating, drinking)
Homeostasis: the maintenance of a steady internal state (ex. Temperature)
Pushed by needs (ex. Hunger)
Pulled by incentives (ex. Aroma of baking bread)
Weakness: how do we explain curiosity? Play?
Optimum Arousal:
We seek optimum levels of arousal
Too little = boredom, too much = stress
Hierarchy of Motives:
Abraham Maslow (1970): certain needs have priority over others
Hunger comes first: fed participants half typical food intake for 6 months
o Lost interest in social activities, love
o Became obsessed with food, food related scenes in shows
Hunger: basic motivation
o Can hunger be understood through a simple motivational perspective?
Biology of hunger: stomach contractions
o Glucose levels
o Hypothalamus
Hypothalamus: lateral hypothalamus increases hunger
o Lower mid-hypothalamus depresses hunger
Psychology of hunger:
Memory: amnesia patients eat frequently if given food
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Document Summary

A need or desire that (a) energizes behaviour and (b) directs it towards a goal. Instincts: complex behaviours that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned. Weaknesses: thousands of instincts needed to explain human behaviour: labelling, not explaining. A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive) Motivates an organism to satisfy the need. Homeostasis: the maintenance of a steady internal state (ex. Too little = boredom, too much = stress. Abraham maslow (1970): certain needs have priority over others. Hunger comes first: fed participants half typical food intake for 6 months: lost interest in social activities, love, became obsessed with food, food related scenes in shows. Biology of hunger: stomach contractions: glucose levels, hypothalamus. Hypothalamus: lateral hypothalamus increases hunger: lower mid-hypothalamus depresses hunger. Memory: amnesia patients eat frequently if given food. Taste: influenced both by body chemistry and environment/culture. Eating disorders: drive for thinness, idealizing thinness.

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