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PSYC 102: Lecture #12

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PSYC 102
David Klonsky

Psychology 102: Developmental, Social, Personality, and Clinical Psychology Lecture #12 - February 26, 2013 Motivation and Work - Chapter 11  A need or desire that (a) energizes behaviour and (b) directs it towards a goal  Theories of motivation: o Instinct o Drive-reduction o Arousal o Hierarchy of needs Instinct Theory:  Instincts: complex behaviours that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned  Strengths: consistent with animal literature  Weaknesses: thousands of instincts needed to explain human behaviour o Labelling, not explaining Drive-Reduction Theory:  A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive)  Motivates an organism to satisfy the need  Need (for food, water etc.) → Drive → Drive-reducing behaviour (eating, drinking)  Homeostasis: the maintenance of a steady internal state (ex. Temperature)  Pushed by needs (ex. Hunger)  Pulled by incentives (ex. Aroma of baking bread)  Weakness: how do we explain curiosity? Play? Optimum Arousal:  We seek optimum levels of arousal  Too little = boredom, too much = stress Hierarchy of Motives:  Abraham Maslow (1970): certain needs have priority over others  Hunger comes first: fed participants half typical food intake for 6 months o Lost interest in social activities, love o Became obsessed with food, food related scenes in shows  Hunger: basic motivation o Can hunger be understood through a simple motivational perspective?  Biology of hunger: stomach contractions o Glucose levels o Hypothalamus  Hypothalamus: lateral hypothalamus increases hunger o Lower mid-hypothalamus depresses hunger Psychology of hunger:  Memory: amnesia patient
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