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PSYC 102 Lecture Notes - Lateral Hypothalamus, Confirmation Bias, Job Performance

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PSYC 102
David Klonsky

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Psych 102 Chpt. 11 Motivation and Work
Motivation- A need or desire that energizes behaviour and directs it towards a goal
Why are we motivated to do anything?
Theories of Motivation
1. Instinct
2. Drive- reduction
3. Arousal
4. Hierarchy of needs
1. Instinct Theory
Instincts- complex behaviours that have fixed patterns throughout different species and are not learned
We are wired to do certain behaviours
Maybe a huge chunk of our motivation, complex behaviours is what we are born with
Ex. leopard taking care of a baby baboon “maternal/ caring instinct”
Strengths: consistent with animal literature
Weaknesses: thousands of instincts needed to explain every behavioural pattern
More labeling than explaining, giving a name to something not understanding it
2. Drive Reduction Theory
A physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive), which motivates an organism to satisfy the
Need-> drive-> drive reducing behaviours Ex. Food-> hunger-> eating
Homeostasis- the maintenance of a steady internal state (e.g. temperature)
Deviate from homeostasis creates drive, motivated to do a behaviour to return us to homeostasis
Strength: Efficient, can explain a wide variety of behaviours that we do
Pushed by needs like hunger
Pulled by incentives like aroma of something delicious, causes aroused tension state
Incentives can disrupt the homeostasis point, causes physiological reaction, makes us want to act on
Weakness: how do we explain patterns of behaviours like curiosity or play?, theory doesn’t work well for
these, doesn’t seem to be a disruption of homeostasis
3. Optimal Arousal
We seek optimum levels of arousal
Too little= boredom; too much= stress
Try to get arousal back to middle point
Explains behaviours like curiosity or play where we are seeking arousal
Strength: Full range of behaviours can be explained
4. Hierarchy of Needs/ Motives
Abraham Maslow- certain needs have priority over others
Physiological, safety, belongingness and love, esteem. Self-actualization
Achieve needs from bottom up
Once need level below is achieved more up to next level, cannot move up unless lower level needs met
Everyone has the capacity to self-actualize if all other conditions are met
Hierarchy of Motives: Hunger Comes First
Research: Keys et al. (1950)
Fed randomly assigned participants half typical food intake for 6 months -> got hungry
The participants lost interest in social activities, love
They became obsessed with food, food related scenes in shows
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