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Chap 13 Personality.docx

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PSYC 102
David Klonsky

Chap 13: Personality Chap 13- Personality Personality: an individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting Psychoanalytic Perspective Theory- Sigmund Freud -first theory of personality …famous, but untrue -the Unconscious: the part of our mind containing thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories of which we are not aware Personality structure: -conscious mind [ego] -preconscious (outside awareness, but accessible if you think about it carefully) [superego] -unconscious mind [id]  Ego: concerned with navigating reality  “reality” principle o eg. looking at laws, rules…  Id: primitive/dark/unconscious urges “pleasure principle”  Superego: morality, internal values govern – don’t do something because it’s not “right”  our ‘conscience” Personality Development: psychosexual stages based on erogenous zones -The Oedipus complex reflects a boy’s sexual desire for his mother and feelings of jealously and hatred for the rival father A girl’s desire for her father is called the Electra complex Defense Mechanism: reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality (cont from Sigmund Freud) Examples… 1. Repression: banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness 2. Reaction Formation: switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites 3. projection: leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others Carl Jung (1875-1961) Collective unconscious- contains images derived from our species’ universal experiences Alfred Adler (1870-1937) -Emphasized social rather than sexual tensions of childhood (didn’t think Freud’s psychosexual stages made sense) Karen Horney (1885-1952) -Shared Adler’s emphasis on social tensions of childhood -countered Freud’s assumption that women have weak superegos and infantile tendencies Assessing Unconscious Processes Projective Personality Tests -tests that projects your unconscious personality Thematic Apperception Tests (TAT) -Henry Murray -people express their personality through stories they make up about ambiguous scenes Rorschach Inkblot Test -most widely used projective tests -designed by Hermann Rorschach -wasn’t originally designed for clinical psychology, but as a game! -people express their personality through their interpretations of the blots -We interpret using…  form (how common more common, more normal…)  Colour (more colourinflates scores of depression)  Use of Details/White space (less normal to look at small parts, more normal to use large areas)  Motion  Special Categories: Pairs, Reflections, Humans/Animals, Morbid things Projective Test Problems: 1. Reliability- consistency  (low correlations between 2 psychologists) 2. Validity- accuracy  (accurate enough to be used as a clinical diagnostic test…?  does seeing pairs in inkblots actually prove narcissism)  cut offs for the tests (like depression) aren’t very valid -Rorschach tests have lots of evidence that show it’s not reliable or valid, but still widely used among psychologists! Evaluating Psychoanalysis 1. Not developed through science 2. Many premises not testable 3. Many testable premises have been scientifically refuted (eg. repression of memories vs. creating fake memories) BUT….general idea of unconscious is right. IT EXISTS, but different from Freudian view of psychoanalysis In Defense of Psychoanalysis: -there is a lot of crap in Freud’s view, but there are also some key concepts that are notable 3 values that Freud’s work in psychoanalytic theory has contributed: 1) drew attention to importance of childhood experiences 2) existence of unconscious mind 3) our self-protective defense mechanisms 3 critiques of Freud’s work: 1) not scientifically testable 2) focuses too much on sexual conflicts in childhood 3) based upon idea of repression, which has not been supported by modern research Humanistic Perspective -Unlike Freud, focused on positive potential of people -also did not come out of rigorous scientific method, but does have a lot of support now -Self-Actualization: process of fulfilling human potential  Abraham Maslow: Hierarchy of Needs has Self-actualization needs at the very top (starts with physiological needs, safety needs, belonging needs, esteem needs, then self- actualization needs) Carl Rogers: Person-Centered Perspective: -everyone has potential for self-actualization -unconditional positive regard: acceptance of others despite their failings  eg. parent should show unconditional positive regard to kid and help kid to grow/ development -In therapy, therapists show these traits to clients…  Acceptance  Empathy  Reflective listening help client feel heard/ understood  Non-directive client directs convo Evaluating the Humanistic Perspective: Critique: Humanistic concepts…  Are vague and subjective o How do we know when someone reaches full potential? o Therefore it has limited utility  Lack scientific basis BUT… 1. Ingredients of person-centered therapy (Empathy, reflective listening) predicts therapy outcomes  More and better use of these skills= better outcome for clients 2. Pervasive impact on counseling, education, child-rearing, and management The Trait Perspective -more contemporary and valid ways to test personality -looks at ppl’s certain traits -A trait is…  a characteristic pattern of behavior;  a disposition to feel and act (eg. tendency to talk a lot across different contexts);  stable over time (traits measured now will have high correlations to traits measured in a few years) Assessing Traits: -Personality Inventories -True-False or Likert scale formats -Self-report questionnaires Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) -developed mid 1900s -updated and still used today -empirically derived
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