PSYC 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Procrastination, Explanatory Style, Reinforcement

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27 Mar 2013
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Psychology 102: Developmental, Social, Personality, and Clinical Psychology
Lecture #16 - March 14, 2013
Explanatory Style:
Optimistic (instead of pessimistic) style
o More control over stressors
o Cope better with stressful events
o Have better moods
o Have a stronger immune system
Social Support:
Social support predicts survival in healthy and diseased populations
Managing Stress and Health:
Sense of control
Optimistic explanatory style
Social support
Aerobic Exercise Can:
Increase energy, self-confidence
Decrease depression, anxiety
Improves mood and well-being
Reducing Anxiety and Tension:
Biofeedback
Relaxation
Meditation
Spirituality and Faith Communities:
Regular religious attendance predicts reduced risk of dying
Modifying Unhealthy Behaviours:
Eliminating smoking would increase life expectancy more than any other preventive
measure
Why Do People Keep Smoking?
Negative reinforcement - removing something aversive/bad
Positive reinforcement - providing something positive/good
Negative reinforcement:
o Removes unpleasant cravings/nicotine withdrawal symptoms
o Fosters relaxation
o Procrastination
Positive reinforcement:
o Nicotine itself is rewarding by triggering dopamine
o Social activity
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