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Lecture 3

PSYC 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Experimental Psychology, Anna O., Operant Conditioning

Course Code
PSYC 102
Simon Lolliot

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PSYC 102 001 L#2 September 11, 2018
Learning Outcomes:
1. Identify different fields of psychology by what they investigate and the major
Structuralism, Functionalism, Gestalt Psychology, Psychoanalytic
Psychology, Humanism, Biopsychology, Evolutionary psychology,
Developmental Psychology, Sensation, and Perception, social
Psychology, Clinical, & Counselling Psychology
Don’t need to memorize all the dates unless specified
2. Distinguish between research and applied approaches in psychology
3. Define Psychology
STRUCTURALISM (1873-1920) Individual Parts of the Mind
Wilhelm Wundt:
- First experimental psychology lab (1879)
- Psychology = “the scientific study of the conscious experience
- “Atoms of the mind” = structure of conscious experience
- Introspection - Internal Perception
o An objective examination of one’s conscious experience
o People were trained to do so
o Used reaction times
- Wrote Principles of Physiological Psychology (1873)
Edward Titchener:
- Wundt’s Protogé & real pioneer behind Structuralism
- Introspection Self-observation
o Problem because it was Inevitably subjective
o Psychological experiences, love, etc..
o Not a duck instead describe as soft to touch, fluffy..
FUNCTIONALISM (1876 1920) Look at the Whole Mind
William James:
- What is the “function of behavior”? What role does thought play?
- “Why “do we do things?
- Thoughts are adaptive (Darwinian approach) & conserved throughout
the evolutionary process
- Wrote the first textbook Principles of Psychology (1890)
PSYCHOANALYSIS (1884 2017) Clinical branch: outgrowth of medicine, psychoses
Sigmund Freud
- Observed Josef Breur’s work with Anna O who suffered from severe
coughing, paralysis on right side of body, disturbances of vision,
hearing, and speech, hallucinations, loss of consciousness
- Resulted in the birth of “Talk Therapy” & resolving unconscious
tensions brought about by past relationships
- Private practice in nervous disorders
GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY (1916-2017) WHOLE MIND (is different from its parts)
Fathers of Gestalt Psychology: Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Köhler
Gestalt = Whole
If shown a photo of a crosswalk we relate it to the Beatles because memory
influences our perceptions
BEHAVIOURISM (1920) Humans are complex machines
Main Figures: Ivan Pavlov (Classical Conditioning), B.F. Skinner (Operant
Conditioning), John Watson
Interested in behavior but not emotions
Stimulus-Response Experiments, Reward/Punishment for actions
MULTICULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY (1920 2018) One Psychology does not fit all
Effects of culture or psychology where/ are understudied
Not only differences in mean level of traits (i.e. extraversion) but different
causes & effects
Frances Cecil Sumner: first African American to receive a PhD in 1920
- Intelligence tests
- Psychoanalysis Freud & Adler
HUMANIST PSYCHOLOGY (1950 2017) Potential for good & growth
Freud = too pessimistic; Behaviorism = too reductionistic
- Hierarchy of needs, jump up
pyramid when satisfied
- Client centered therapy but
therapist does NOT interpret
- Unconditional positive regard
COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY (1050) Focused on Mental Processes
Perceive, Process, & Remember information
What do the following fields study?
- Biology ~ Behaviour; Short term
- Behaviour is based in physiology, looks as environment as well
- Ex. Can’t be a good mathematician if no school and books
Evolutionary Psychology
- Biology ~ Behaviour
- Longer Period of time
Developmental Psychology:
- How do we develop/ grow across time
- Physical development; cognitive, social, moral
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