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Psychology 102 - November 12.docx

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PSYC 102
Tanya Salamander

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Psychology 102 November 12, 2013 Treatment Treatment of Mental Disorders • Treatment o Biomedical  Drug Therapy  ECT (Electroconvulsive Therapy)  Psychosurgery • Like lobotomy, used to be for severe disorders, used before drug therapies o Psychotherapy  Psychodynamic  Behavioural  Cognitive  Humanistic  Systems • Drug Therapy o Most prevalent form of treatment of mental disorders  Only treated with a handful of different types of drugs o 3 classes of medications  Anti-depressants: depression  Anti-anxiety agents: anxiety disorders, phobias, PTSD  Anti-psychotics: for schizophrenia/psychotic disorders • Neurotransmitters o Brain chemicals that communicate info between nerve cells o Excitatory  Increase action potential  Dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine o Inhibitory  Decrease action potential  Serotonin, GABA, Dopamine 3 classes of drug treatments • Anti-depressants o Neurotransmitter Disregulation  Depression • Low levels of serotonin/norepinephrine in synapses • Too few or insensitive receptors for S and N • How they work: o Most increase Norepinephrine & Serotonin o 2-3 weeks delay in effectiveness o Message is sent across synaptic gap  Message is received; excess neurotransmitter molecules are reabsorbed by sending neuron  Prozac blocks normal reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin; excess serotonin in synapse enhances its mood-lifting effect. • What they are called: o Tricyclics:  Elavil, Tofranil  Block reuptake of serotonin & norepinephrine  Side effects: dry mouth, constipation, sexual dysfunction, drowsiness, blurred vision, increased heart rate o Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSREs)  Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, Celexa  As effective w/fewer side effects (but headaches, nausea, low sex drive)  55-70% show reduced symptoms o Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (NSRIs)  Effexor, Cymbalta o Increase dopamine  Wellbutrin • How effective is Drug Treatment? o The case for anti-depressants Treating Bipolar Disorder • Theory o Mania from excess or disregulation of dopamine • Mood Stabilizers o Lithium  Especially effective for
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