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Psychology 102 - October 3.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 102
Professor
Tanya Salamander
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology 102 October 3, 2013 Intelligence continued… Where does intelligence come from? • Nature (Plato) vs. Nurture (Aristotle)  o Blank slate vs. Genetic predisposition  Now: always a function of both, and an interaction of the two • Heritability o Proportion of performance variance in a sample attributed to variability in genes  Not specific to an individual  o Methods:  Selective breading in animals  Family, Twin, Adoption Studies  Molecular genetics  o ~50%­75% of the intelligence score variation is inherited Selective breading • Animal Research o Rats can be bred for maze running ability (Tryon 1942) o But, environment can overwhelm genetic differences (Cooper & Zubek 1958)  Enriched environment vs. impoverished rat environment o Animals bred for:  Activity level  Exploratory behaviour  Eating behaviour  Aggressive behaviour  Wariness  Behavioural Genetics • Study of genetic influence on behaviour  o Performance on IQ test • Methodology o Twin studies o Adoption studies  Both rely on correlations between pairs of people who vary in their genetic  association (Correlation studies ) • Twin & Adoption Studies o Monozygotic twins –MZ  100% genetic similarity (identical twins) o Dizygotic twins – DZ  50% genetic similarity (fraternal twins) o Parent & biological child  50% genetic similarity o Parent & adopted child  0% genetic similarity • Weakness with Twin Studies o Identical twins share identical appearance   MZ are always the same sex; DZ are not  o “Reared apart” environments might not be that different  • Identifying the genes for g o Behavioural genetics  Intelligence is partly heritable o Molecular genetics?  2012 study of 10,000 failed to replicate earlier results with 11 genes  Need to identify complex interactions  • What Heritability Estimates DON’T tell us: o Genetic influence in a given individual  o Mechanism by which genes influence behavi
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