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Psychology 102 - October 17.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 102
Professor
Tanya Salamander
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology 102 October 17, 2013  Emotion • What is an Emotion? o Three components of emotion  Physiological response  Expression  Subjective experience • Physiology­Emotion Relation o “Common Sense” Theory  Stimulus  ▯Emotion  ▯Arousal o James­Lange Theory  Stimulus  ▯Arousal  ▯Emotion  Instructions: Imagine being either person (a) or (b) and write about  experience (a) Fear or (b) Anger  Participants listen to music • (a) High­arousal, unpleasant music • (b) Neutral music   How likely are you to engage in risky behaviours? • Fear is known to curtail riskiness • Anger does not effect riskiness o Schachter’s Two­Factor Theory  Stimulus  ▯Arousal  ▯Interpretation  ▯Emotion • Human consciously interpret their arousal as emotion o “The pictures make me feel unpleasantly aroused, so I must  be disgusted” • Similar arousal patterns lead to distinct emotions o Endorsement of Risky Behaviour  Writing about fear (Stimulus) + listening to high­arousal music (Arousal) ▯   risk aversion (emotion) o Expression  “Basic” emotions: Universal and fundamental • Recognizable facial expression are primary criteria o Emotion Expression Recognition Across Cultures  Recognition rates are similar in diverse parts of the world  Happiness is most readily recognized emotion (only positive emotion)  Fear, disgust, and anger are most difficult to recognize (all share  negativity) o Recognition in Pre­Literate Societies  Happiness is recognized equally well as industrialized societies  Recognition rates for negative emotions tend to be lower in pre­literate  societies  Individuals in pre­literate societies can recognize a wide range of emotions o Automatic Recognition (<1000 ms)  Recognition rates are comparable to those reached with conscious  deliberation o Recognition in Children  Children as young as 4 can recognize a range of emotion expressions  No evidence has supported recognition prior to age 4 o Why does universality matter?  Recognition without cultural learning  Recognition without language  Recognition without deliberation • Ability to express and recognize emotions may be fundamental to  the human mind o Functional Evolutionary Approach  Why do we have emotions?  Emotions are adaptations – just like a nose & eye • Each emotion has a purpose o Today and in evolutionary past o Purpose of Emotions  Nose: detect potentially harmful odors  Eyes: See potent
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