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Psychology 102 - November 7.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 102
Tanya Salamander

Psychology 102 Psychological Disorders November 7, 2013 • ActivityAssignment #3 o Psychology at the movies o Due Nov 26 at 5pm Outline • What is abnormal behaviour? • How are disorders diagnosed? • Examples of some clinical disorders? Etiology: What causes Mood Disorders? • 1. Psychodynamic Theories o Psychodynamic perspective focuses on early relationships  Umbrella term given to theorist that were inspired by Freud’s idea but rejected some of them (more controversial ones)  Retained: importance placed on social relationships, specifically early ones.  Depression is unconscious self-punishment stemming from feeling abandoned • Dependency and perfectionism are risk factors  Interpersonal Theory (IPT, Coyne) • Excessive efforts to seek reassurance o Talking to a depressed person can make one feel more anxious/depressed • Others reject the person o Relationships are important for coping with depression o Depressed people start to be excluded o Freud’s understanding: root cause of people’s early childhood experiences, before 5 years old  relationships with primary caregivers etc. • 2. Cognitive Theories o Beck’s Theory (1967)  Depression stems from negative mental of self, world, & future • Can’t just talk yourself out of beliefs  Depressed people believe that they are worthless  future is filled with negativity, the future is dark  Negative views about the world (“everyone hates me because I am worthless”)  Negative views about the future (“I’ll never be good at anything because everyone hates me”)  Negative views about oneself (“I am worthless”) o Information processing bias • E.G. Alloy • _LOOM • LO_ELY • _RIEF o Depressed people more likely to say: Gloom, Lonely, Grief o Non-Depressed people: Bloom, Lovely, Brief o Self = BADAssociation;  Biased attention to negative events  Biased interpretation of ambiguous events • If a friend cancels plans, spun in a negative way (it’s my fault etc.) o Start to generalize with every experience  Biased memory for negative events o Learned-Helplessness Theory  (Seligman & Maeir, 1967)  Learned a lack of control  Tendency to attribute negative events to Internal, stable, and global factors • Doesn’t necessarily have to stem from a young age • 3. Biological Theories o Genetic link  Risk of MDD is doubled when family history is present o Brain structure  Frontal lobes 7% smaller in severe depressives o Neurotransmitter Disregulation  Depression • Low levels of serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine • Short alleles in serotonin transporter gene (+ early abuse)  Bipolar • Mania from excess of disregulation of dopamine • Heritability = 85% o Anxiety Disorders  “According to most studies, people’s number one fear is public speaking. Number two is death. Death is number two. Does that sound right? This means to the average person, if you go to a funeral, you’re better off in the casket than doing the eulogy.” o Anxiety Disorders and OCD  GeneralizedAnxiety Disorder (GAD) • Chronic feelings of anxiety  Diagnostic Criteria • A. Excessive anxiety and worry, over 6-month period • B.
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