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Psychology 102 - October 15.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 102
Professor
Tanya Salamander
Semester
Fall

Description
Psychology 102 Motivation October 15, 2013  Dopamine and motivation  • Broad concept o Mechanism or flow of behaviour that can be directed in many different ways  o Motivation: the push to “do” • Disorders of motivation o Alcoholism o Drug abuse o Behavioural addictions (i.e. pathological gambling, compulsive sexual  behaviours)  Entire life becomes devoted to fulfilling that want  • Economic impact of substance abuse o Australia: 55 billion/year o Canada: 40 billion/year o US: 556 billion/year  • Biological underpinnings o “Everything psychological is simultaneously biological” o System for motivating behaviour  ▯necessary for survival  • No one theory can explain all of the data on motivation…motivation is multiply  determined  • Contemporary knowledge o Regional  Prefrontal cortex (making executive control over behaviour, evaluate)  Nucleus accumbens o Systemic  Mesolimbic dopamine pathways  Mesocortical dopamine pathways o Neurochemical  Dopamine  • Intro to neurobiology  o The neuron   The synapse, one cell sends the signal (axon), the other receives the signal  (dendrite)  Neurotransmitters enable communication between cells • Neurology of motivated behaviour o Olds (1956) ▯ Intercranial self­stimulation   Rats would stimulate up to 2000x/day  • Olds and ICSS o Why was ICSS so motivating?  Hedonia hypothesis • Seemed to be confirmed by human studies in 1960s/1970s • Patient B­19  Emergence of dopamine • DA antagonists muted lever­pressing behaviour o (Olds and Travis, 1960)  • Roy Wise and ICSS o Corbett and Wise (1980)  More surgical precision = more precise mapping of functional regions  Found that more stimulation occurred when electrode placed in regions  with more dopamine o Wise’s hedonia hypothesis (1980)  “The dopamine junctions represent a synaptic way station…where sensory  inputs are translated into the hedonic messages we experiences as  pleasure, euphoria or ‘yumminess’” • Dopamine and pleasure o Evidence against the DA = pleasure hypothesis  Self­reports from ICSS patients • Patient B­19 (Heath 1970) o No subjective descriptions of pleasure resulting from  stimulation o Sexual arousal but no sexual satisfaction • Female patient (Portenoy 1986) o “Though sexual arousal was prominent, no orgasm  occurred” o “She described erotic sensations often intermixed with an 
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