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Psychology 102 - September 17.docx

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PSYC 102
Tanya Salamander

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Psychology 102
September 17, 2013
Experimental Methodology Terms
Independent variable: thing that researchers manipulate
oMay have some impact
Control variable: something you want to measure because you want to explain variation
within the study group
Dependent variable: the thing that you think is going to be dependent on what you are
Confound: being able to choose
Activity Assignment #1
Do happy people make us happy?
Watching what happens naturally
In a public setting, do happy people tend to be grouped with other happy
people, and sad people with sad people?
Assessing relationship between 2 or more variables
In a persons happiness positively correlated with the happiness of his/her
Controlled experiment to establish cause and effect
Does exposure to happy vs. sad person cause another to mimic that
happiness or sadness?
Experimental Design
oIndependent variable 1: Emotion condition
Smile condition: Eye contact with smile
Frown condition: Eye contact with frown
Control condition: Eye contact with no expression
oWalk around campus, assign people with one of the three conditions
oDependent variable: Rated expression
Degree of smile or frown from participant
Operationalizing Variables
oIndependent variable: Emotion Condition
What is a smile? (With teeth)
What is a frown? (Sad frown)
What is neutral?
oIndependent variable 2: Gender Matching
Same-sex other
Opposite-sex other
oDependent variable: Rated expression

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Psychology 102 September 17, 2013  Experimental Methodology Terms • Independent variable: thing that researchers manipulate o May have some impact  • Control variable: something you want to measure because you want to explain variation  within the study group  • Dependent variable: the thing that you think is going to be dependent on what you are  manipulating • Confound: being able to choose  Activity Assignment #1 • Do happy people make us happy? o Descriptive  Watching what happens naturally  In a public setting, do happy people tend to be grouped with other happy  people, and sad people with sad people? o Correlational  Assessing relationship between 2 or more variables  In a person’s happiness positively correlated with the happiness of his/her  roommate? o Experimental  Controlled experiment to establish cause and effect  Does exposure to happy vs. sad person cause another to mimic that  happiness or sadness?  • Experimental Design o Independent variable 1: Emotion condition  Smile condition: Eye contact with smile  Frown condition: Eye contact with frown  Control condition: Eye contact with no expression  o Walk around campus, assign people with one of the three conditions  o Dependent variable: Rated expression  Degree of smile or frown from participant  • Operationalizing Variables o Independent variable: Emotion Condition  What is a smile? (With teeth)  What is a frown? (Sad frown)  What is neutral?  o Independent variable 2: Gender Matching  Same­sex other  Opposite­sex other o Dependent variable: Rated expression  Measure of other’s expression (1­5 scale) • Clear frown, small frown, neutral, small smile, clear smile • Issues to prevent confounds o Confounds  When conditions differ in m
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