Class Notes (839,150)
Canada (511,218)
Psychology (2,093)
PSYC 102 (416)


5 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 102
Maria Weatherby

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Intelligence Do animals have intelligence? (Videos) • Chimpanzees: o Language through symbols o Planning ahead Intelligence: • 50% genetics • 50% environment • Intelligence is part of a much larger field of psychology referred to as the study of  individual differences • As human beings, we have many similarities but we also have many differences  in terms of behavior o Abilities: genetic predispositions that you bring into the world and through  practice you develop them into skills  Abilities measured through skill o Beliefs o Attitudes o Motivations o Emotional characteristics o Personality traits o Psychophysiological type (ex. Chronobiological: owl, lark, cat)  Owl: night (goes to bed late, wakes up late)  Lark: day (goes to bed early, wakes up early)  Cat: Night and day (goes back and forth) o Intelligence Individual differences: • We are intrigued by our differences more so than by our similarities • Individual differences are the result of biological and environmental factors and  their complex interactions Definition: (no concrete definition) • Abilities, skills and achievement • Difficult finding an all encompassing definition of intelligence • Different cognitive attributes may be valued differently in different cultures o Ex. Hunter gatherer societies may value abilities related to cooperative  behavior and the development of successful hunting skills o Ex. Maritime societies may place greater value on spatial abilities and  intelligence underlying the development of navigational skills Early definition • The capacity to understand the world and the resourcefulness to cope with its  challenges • Central to this definition is the concept of adaptability and even creativity  (divergent thinking) o What constitutes resourcefulness and rationality can differ from culture to  culture  Ex. North Americans’ emphasis on verbal abilities and problem  solving don’t necessarily constitute good coping strategies in other  cultures o Many early intelligence tests focuses heavily on language and verbal  performance History of intelligence tests: • Intelligence tests have existed for over 100 years • First tests developed by Galton who noticed some families were smarter and some  were stronger than others. He believed intelligence was inherited and  fundamentally related to sensory/perceptual proficiency • Note: relation to info processing approach Modern intelligence tests • Binet is seen as originator of modern intelligence tests o Commissioned by French government to develop intelligence tests  Help to stream children into public school system o 30 questions focused on reasoning, problem solving, memory, imagination  Yet there is no motor skill test (these tests later developed by  Fleishman) • Lewis Terman (Stanford) modified Binet’s test for North America by testing  thousands of children and establishing societal norms for knowledge in various  age categories • William Stern came up with idea of expressing intelligence as a quotient:  Mental Age IQ= Chronological Age ∗100 • Problems with US government using intelligence tests in the 1930s to screen  immigrants coming to North America o Used to determine which part of work force they should be put into • Test validity and reliability o Ex. Someone who doesn’t speak English very well will show a poor IQ  when they may in fact be very intelligent o • Since the 1930s Weschler, Cattlell, Thurston and others viewed intelligence as  mode up of several components or dimensions • Factor analysis has been used as a statistical method to identify the various  dimensions or types of intelligence o Factor analysis: technique for doing cross correlations o Which statements out of a list get answered in the same why by a group of  people: factors • Gardner identifies 8 types of intelligence o o Linguistic o Intrapersonal (self) o Biological o Interpersonal (others) o Logical o Naturalist o Mathematical o Pos
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.