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Lecture

Intelligence.docx

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 102
Professor
Maria Weatherby

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Intelligence Do animals have intelligence? (Videos) • Chimpanzees: o Language through symbols o Planning ahead Intelligence: • 50% genetics • 50% environment • Intelligence is part of a much larger field of psychology referred to as the study of  individual differences • As human beings, we have many similarities but we also have many differences  in terms of behavior o Abilities: genetic predispositions that you bring into the world and through  practice you develop them into skills  Abilities measured through skill o Beliefs o Attitudes o Motivations o Emotional characteristics o Personality traits o Psychophysiological type (ex. Chronobiological: owl, lark, cat)  Owl: night (goes to bed late, wakes up late)  Lark: day (goes to bed early, wakes up early)  Cat: Night and day (goes back and forth) o Intelligence Individual differences: • We are intrigued by our differences more so than by our similarities • Individual differences are the result of biological and environmental factors and  their complex interactions Definition: (no concrete definition) • Abilities, skills and achievement • Difficult finding an all encompassing definition of intelligence • Different cognitive attributes may be valued differently in different cultures o Ex. Hunter gatherer societies may value abilities related to cooperative  behavior and the development of successful hunting skills o Ex. Maritime societies may place greater value on spatial abilities and  intelligence underlying the development of navigational skills Early definition • The capacity to understand the world and the resourcefulness to cope with its  challenges • Central to this definition is the concept of adaptability and even creativity  (divergent thinking) o What constitutes resourcefulness and rationality can differ from culture to  culture  Ex. North Americans’ emphasis on verbal abilities and problem  solving don’t necessarily constitute good coping strategies in other  cultures o Many early intelligence tests focuses heavily on language and verbal  performance History of intelligence tests: • Intelligence tests have existed for over 100 years • First tests developed by Galton who noticed some families were smarter and some  were stronger than others. He believed intelligence was inherited and  fundamentally related to sensory/perceptual proficiency • Note: relation to info processing approach Modern intelligence tests • Binet is seen as originator of modern intelligence tests o Commissioned by French government to develop intelligence tests  Help to stream children into public school system o 30 questions focused on reasoning, problem solving, memory, imagination  Yet there is no motor skill test (these tests later developed by  Fleishman) • Lewis Terman (Stanford) modified Binet’s test for North America by testing  thousands of children and establishing societal norms for knowledge in various  age categories • William Stern came up with idea of expressing intelligence as a quotient:  Mental Age IQ= Chronological Age ∗100 • Problems with US government using intelligence tests in the 1930s to screen  immigrants coming to North America o Used to determine which part of work force they should be put into • Test validity and reliability o Ex. Someone who doesn’t speak English very well will show a poor IQ  when they may in fact be very intelligent o • Since the 1930s Weschler, Cattlell, Thurston and others viewed intelligence as  mode up of several components or dimensions • Factor analysis has been used as a statistical method to identify the various  dimensions or types of intelligence o Factor analysis: technique for doing cross correlations o Which statements out of a list get answered in the same why by a group of  people: factors • Gardner identifies 8 types of intelligence o o Linguistic o Intrapersonal (self) o Biological o Interpersonal (others) o Logical o Naturalist o Mathematical o Pos
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