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6 Pages

Course Code
PSYC 207
Michael Souza

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Impaired long-term memory Amnesia - It doesn’t jumpt all over time - It starts with the memories that are closest to you in respect to time Patient HM - HM - As a child he grew up normally - The issue was he started to have seizures - He had a bike accident – afterwards he started having GRAND MAL seizures that were worse o He could no loner function normally - Hippocampus – epileptic focus o Many seizures start in medial temporal lobe - Bilateral Medial temporal lobe resection (took out hippocampus on either rside of brains) - After effects o Reduced the incidence of seizures o It left him with chronic, long lasting impairment o Dense anterograde amnesia  He could not create new declarative memories at all  However, he could still remember long-term memory  He lost memory from a month or so from surgery – before that he could remember perfectly fine (his retrograde amnesia was intact)  His short-term memory was totally fine  IF it didn’t last more than 1 minute, you would never know anything was wrong  If he was’t thinkin about it in the moment, it was gone forever o Short-term memory and intelligence in tact  Learn information> intelligence was impaired  Reasoning tasks > HM excelled at (he was just as good)  He had a selective impairment to learn new information o New Memories  He COULD learn SOME things  Caveat – he wouldn’t remember having learned them  Mirror Tracing Task  He looks in the mirror down  He is asked to trace the star  The next day o I have NEVER done this before o But, the second day he makes fewer errors on the task than the first day o By the 10 day he is PERFECT at this o He still has no idea that he has done it  Disassociation between declarative memory vs. procedural skill o Procedural skill – in tact o Declarative memory – completely gone  Sequence Task  You have to press the buttons in the sequence they pop up  HM is just as good as anyone, Day 1  Day 2 – same sequences to learn, and he is FASTER than he was the day before  He has NO memory of doing, but each day he is faster  No recollection of having done this  You could TEACH him how to drive, or play the piano etc  Distinction between EXPLICIT and IMPLICIT MEMORIES o Memory taxonomy for LTM - Clive Wearing o Arguably the most severe memory patient in recorded history o Damage caused by Herpes Simplex Encephalitis o Profound retrograde amnesia, anterograde amnesia o Every time he sees her wife, it is like the first time she has seen her in years o Doesn’t know what food tastes like o Doesn’t remember his family o He only had memory for a FEW SECONDS – anything beyond that is gone o It is HM’s case taken to a much more serious level - Momento o Gives you a real picture of what it must be like - Memory Circuit (Papez Circuit) o Hippocampus is not the only area that leads to memories o The hippocampus is part of a CIRCUIT that is responsible for learning declarative knowledge o If you damage any one of them you will have ANTEROGRADE AMNESIA o The hippocampus is easier to damage than any other area  You can get to it through accident  Common Cause: Lack of Oxygen  It is one of the most demanding part of the brain o The neurons KILL themselves when they don’t get the neurons nutrients need – they fire so many times they die  They drown, or hypoxic - Dementia & Alzheimer’s o All dementia’s are tough o The idea is not to be depressing - What do we know, then we can think about how we can do something about it o Dementia  Demenita IS a memory problem, but it also EFFECTS OTHER COGNITIVE domains  You may have a problem  With language  Visuospatial  Executive functions  Mild Cognitive Impairment  You have memories that are NOT normal, but are not dementia  MCI sits between neurologically healthy/normally and full blown dementia  Characterizing this is tricky  Some people with MCI never get worse, many advance into alzheimer’s disease o We need to figure out what MCI tells us about the brain o Is it a gateway to dementia?  As we are older – we have memory problems  It is NOT normal to forget things we should know, but MCI is pathological aging, this is NOT normal aging  This is a DISEASE/SET of diseases o Causes of dementia  Infection (Aids, Neurosyphilis)  Metabolic (alcoholism, B12)  Trauma (dementia pugilistica)  Vascular (diabetes, hypertension)  Second leading cause of dementia  This is a series of mini strokes  It is blood vessel based (comes from increased prev
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