PSYC 208 Lecture Notes - Dissociative Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, Dementia

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3 Feb 2013
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Diagnostic Criteria for Psychopathology 10/30/2012 3:55:00 PM
Introduction
Superstition
o Possession: exorcism
o Witchcraft: torture
o Affliction: prayer
Medical Model
o Analogy by which abnormal behavior is treated as disease
Mental disease; psychological disorder; psychopathology
Diagnosis: classification
Etiology: cause
Prognosis: forecast
o Might be inappropriate
Illness or deviation?
Medical issue or moral/social issue?
DSM
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published by American
Psychiatric Association
Rapid expansion of mental disorders:
o DSM-I (1952): 100 disorders
o DSM-IV-TR (2000): 400 disorders
o Result of mental health industry and U.S. health insurance?
Many new “disorders” reflect normal behavior:
o ADHD; Mathematics disorder; caffeine-induced sleep disorder
o Discarded diagnoses: drapetomania (made black slaves want to flee captivity);
childhood masturbation disorder and homosexuality
Over-diagnosis
o ADHD affects 5-10% of school-age children
Multi-Axial System
Axis I: clinical syndromes
o Disorders first diagnosed in infancy/childhood/adolescence (e.g. autism, ADHD)
o Organic mental disorders: dysfunction of brain functioning (e.g. dementia, organic
amnesia)
Organic: stems from the organs
o Substance related disorders: maladaptive use of drugs and alcohol
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