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Ch. 5 - Diagnostic Criteria for Psychopathology.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 208
Paul Wehr

Diagnostic Criteria for Psychopathology 10/30/2012 3:55:00 PM Introduction  Superstition o Possession: exorcism o Witchcraft: torture o Affliction: prayer  Medical Model o Analogy by which abnormal behavior is treated as disease  Mental disease; psychological disorder; psychopathology  Diagnosis: classification  Etiology: cause  Prognosis: forecast o Might be inappropriate  Illness or deviation?  Medical issue or moral/social issue? DSM  Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) published by American Psychiatric Association  Rapid expansion of mental disorders: o DSM-I (1952): 100 disorders o DSM-IV-TR (2000): 400 disorders o Result of mental health industry and U.S. health insurance?  Many new “disorders” reflect normal behavior: o ADHD; Mathematics disorder; caffeine-induced sleep disorder o Discarded diagnoses: drapetomania (made black slaves want to flee captivity); childhood masturbation disorder and homosexuality  Over-diagnosis o ADHD affects 5-10% of school-age children Multi-Axial System  Axis I: clinical syndromes o Disorders first diagnosed in infancy/childhood/adolescence (e.g. autism, ADHD) o Organic mental disorders: dysfunction of brain functioning (e.g. dementia, organic amnesia)  Organic: stems from the organs o Substance related disorders: maladaptive use of drugs and alcohol o Schizophrenia & other psychotic disorders: hallucinations, delusions, disorganized thought o Mood disorders: emotional disturbances (e.g. depression, bipolar disorder) o Anxiety disorders: heightened and unpleasant physiological activity (e.g. phobias, PTSD) o Eating disorders: disturbances in eating and preoccupation with weight (e.g. anorexia, bulimia) o Sexual and gender identity disorders (e.g. paraphilia and sexual dysfunction)  Paraphilia: atypical sexual arousal (objects, chil
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