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PSYC 208 - Lecture Template - Ch. 10 (1 of 1).doc

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 208
Maria Weatherby

Chapter 10: How do friendships change from early to middle childhood? ______________________________________________________________________________ 1. The social needs children desire, seek out, and expect from friendships changes from early to middle childhood. Early Childhood: 2-6 year olds Middle Childhood: 6-12 year olds Social Needs: Social Needs: - Someone to play with (playmate) - BFF – exclusivity, no competition - Reciprocal trust - Intimacy (psychological, not physical) Parten’s (1932) Stages of Play Parallel Play – - Transfer of internal working model from parents to peers (Bowlby) - No interaction - Playing side by side Associative Play – - Brief interactions - Not a joint activity (e.g. cannot draw on same paper, but share crayons, etc) Cooperative Play – - Joint activity/task, collaboration  group maintenance skills - Group entry skills (getting in without rejection), not to be bossy/aggressive - Work together, give and take 2. There is a stronger preference for same-sex friendships in middle childhood relative to early childhood. For instance, in middle childhood, friendship selection is based more on sex than any other variable (i.e., age or race). - Rules for acceptable interactions with opposite sex 3. Near the end of early childhood, sex differences emerge in the way that girls and boys interact in same-sex friendships. However, these interactional differences are more pronounced in middle childhood. These interactional differences appear to be strongly influenced by gender rules and roles. When girls interact in same-sex friendships, an enabling style can be observed. - Rules for acceptable interactions with same sex - Enabling style – encourage/support/compliment each other; do not promote boasting, self-promotion - No open disagreement When boys interact in same-sex friendships, a restricting or constricting style can be observed. - Directly confront/challenge/interrupt - Boast/brag/self-promotion 4. In middle childhood, physical aggression decreases but relational and retaliatory aggression increase. Early Childhood Middle Childhood - Physical aggression peaks around Retaliatory aggression: requires an understanding of intent. 2-3 years of age (80-90% goes Wanting to get back at the person. away) - Delay of gratification Relational aggression: aggression intended to lower someone’s self-esteem or peer/social status. (popularity)  relational bully. e.g. social exclusion Example: - Ostracism: intentional exclusion. For instance a b-day party, invite people and exclude others to humiliate them. - Defamation: to humiliate you…by
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