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Chapter 6 Independent Questions.doc

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PSYC 208
Maria Weatherby

Chapter 6 Independent Questions I. Theories of Social and Personality Development A. Psychoanalytical Perspectives – See lecture notes B. Ethological Perspectives 1. (a) Bowlby distinguished between two different types of affectionate human relationships. Clarify the difference between an affectionate bond and attachment? - An affectionate bond is an emotional tie to an infant experienced by the parent while attachment is the emotional tie an infant feels towards their parents; the child has a sense of security (b) Define reactive attachment disorder. - reactive attachment disorder is a disorder that appears to prevent a child from forming close social relationships  ex. children who are adopted after spending more than 2 years in an orphanage are more likely to suffer from this disorder Research Report: Adoption and Development 2. Read the research report on pp. 150-151. (a) Why might the formation of attachment be more challenging for infants that are adopted? - aspects of temperament and personality are inherited, therefore, an adopted child is more likely to be different than their adoptive parents, making the formation of attachment more challenging  ex. two extremely shy parents adopt an outgoing child; parents may view the child’s behaviour as difficult, basically different than theirs (b) What did Elinor Ames’s (1997) research with Romanian orphans find? - infants who had lived in the Romanian orphanages for more than 4 months before being adopted by British Columbian families tended to have more psychological and motor-behaviour problems than non-adopted children  the more months an infant had lived in the Romanian orphanage, the more serious his/her difficulties were (c) What did Lucy LeMare’s (2001) research with Romanian orphans find? - same results as Ames’ findings, but also that these Romanian orphans had a lower than average IQ and academic achievement, and more difficulties with attention, learning and peer relationships  these children were just as well liked as any other child and the adoption experience has continued to be mutually rewarding for both the Romanian orphans and their adoptive families II. Attachment A. The Parents’ Attachment to the Infant 3. (a) Define synchrony. - synchrony is a mutual, interlocking pattern of attachment behaviours shared by a parent and a child  it is like a conversation; the baby signals his needs by crying or smiling and he responds to being held by quieting or snuggling; he looks at his parents when they look at him (b) Identify the parental behaviours that are similar between fathers and mothers. - the father’s bond with the infant also seems to depend more on the development of synchrony than on contact immediately after birth - fathers have the same list of attachment behaviours as do mothers; in the early weeks of a baby’s life, fathers touch, talk to, and buddle their babies in the same ways that mothers do (c) Identify the parental behaviours that are different between fathers and mothers. - during the time that fathers spend playing with their baby, their engage in more physical roughhousing while mothers spend more time in routine caregiving and also talk to and smile at the baby more  this difference does not mean that fathers have a weaker affectional bond with their infant; simply means that mothers and fathers use different attachment behaviours in interacting with their infants  Ex. Canadian researchers found that fathers can be as sensitive to the needs of their children as mothers; fathers are however, less consistent than mothers in responding to infant cues, sometimes reacting and sometimes not - fathers who reported that they felt accepted during their childhood/high level of marital satisfaction were more responsive to their offspring, regardless of his perception of his own childhood experience B. The Infants’ Attachment to the Parents i. Establishing Attachment – See lecture notes ii. Attachment Behaviours 4. Some parent-infant interactions incorporate affect dysregulation. Describe this type of interactional pattern and record the research findings related to it. - affect dysregulation is an interaction pattern in which a caregiver’s emotional responses to an infant interfere with the baby’s ability to learn how to regular his or her emotions (ex. an infant is angry because an enjoyable activity is no longer available and their caregiver responds with more anger, causing the infant’s anger level to escalate - research has found that the pattern is more common in infant-mother pairs in which the mother displays low levels of sensitivity to the infant’s needs and the infant is insecurely attached - most developmentalists think that the quality of the emotional give-and-take in interactions between an infant and his caregivers is important to the child’s ability to control emotions such as anger and frustration in later years iii. Internal Models – See lecture notes C. Variations in Attachment Quality i. Secure and Insecure Attachments – See lecture notes ii. Stability of Attachment Classifications – See lecture notes D. Caregiver characteristics and attachment i. Emotional Responsiveness 5. (a) Define the two crucial ingredients for secure attachment. - emotional availability on the part of the primary caregiver  the caregiver is one who is able and willing to form an emotional attachment to the infant  ex. economically/emotionally distressed parents may be so distracted by their own problems that they can’t invest emotion in the parent-infant relationship  these parents may be able to meet the baby’s physical needs but unable to respond emotionally - contingent responsiveness is being sensitive to the child’s verbal and nonverbal cues and responding appropriately  they smile when the baby smiles, talk to the baby when he vocalizes, picks him up when he cries, etc. (b) A low level of parental responsiveness is associated with both types of insecure attachment. However, each type of insecure attachment is distinct. Explain what parental responses are associated with (i) avoidant patterns of attachment, (ii) ambivalent patterns of attachment (which is the same as the “anxious” type), and (iii) disorganized/disoriented patterns of attachment (which is a fourth type of attachment identified by more contemporary researchers – that is, not one of Ainsworth’s three types of attachment). i) – mother will reject the infant or regularly withdraw from contact with her, causing the baby to more likely shown an avoidant pattern of attachment ii) – primary caregiver is inconsistently or unreliably available to the child iii) – parent had some unresolved trauma in his or her own childhood, such as abuse or a parent’s early death leading to the abuse of their children ii. Marital Status and SES 6. (a) How does age influence the attachment process? - with increasing age, mothers become less likely to describe their babies as “difficult” - older mothers display more sensitive care giving behaviours than teenagers (teenage mothers are likely to have less education and fewer economic resources than older mothers)  thus hard to say whether age or maturity is responsible for associations between maternal age and parenting characteristics (b) How does marital conflict influence the attachment process? - Parental arguments, especially those in which parents are verbally aggressive toward each other, are more likely to display signs of emotional withdrawal than babies who are not exposed  emotional withdrawal of the infant interferes with synchrony, thereby lessening the chances that he will develop a secure attachment to his primary caregiver iii. Mental Health – (optional reading – not on exams) E. Long-term Consequences of Attachment Quality 7. The effects of attachment quality have been empirically investigated. Summarize the effects of attachment during the stages of (a) childhood, (b) adolescence and (c) adulthood. III. Personality, Temperament, and Self-Concept A. Dimensions of Temperament Temperament is defined as inborn predispositions (nature) that affect how infants behave and emotionally respond to their environment. Temperament is the foundation for personality, which emerges in later stages of development. For instance, in chapter 10, you will be introduced to five personality types; however, in the current chapter, the focus is on temperament. 8. (a) Based on their nine dimensions, Thomas and Chess propose three types of infant temperament: (i) easy, (ii) difficult, and (iii) slow-to-warm-up. Define each of these three types of temperament. i) easy temperament is a tendency to approaching new events positively, displaying predictable sleeping and eating cycles, being generally happy and adjusting easily to change ii) difficult temperament is a tendency for irregular sleeping and eating cycles, emotional negativity and irritability, and resistance to change iii) slow-to-warm-up temperament is a tendency for inactivity and turning away from and adjusting slowly to unfamiliar people and new experiences; they display mild signs of negativity and discomfort (b) Contemporary theories of temperament suggest there are five traits or dimensions in infancy: (i) activity level, (ii) approach/positive emotionality, (iii) inhibition, (iv) negative emotionality, and (v) effortful control/task persistence. i) activity level refers to an infant’s tendency either to move often and vigorously or to remain passive or immobile ii) approach/positive emotionality is a tendency to move toward rather than away from new people, things, or objects; usually accompanied by positive emotion (similar to what others called sociability iii) inhibition is a tendency to respond with fear or withdrawal to new people, new situations, or new objects iv) negative emotionality is a tendency to respond to frustrating circumstances with anger, fussing, loudness, or irritability v) effortful control/task persistence is an ability to stay focused and to manage attention and effort B. Origins and Stability of Temperament i. Heredity - (optional reading – not on exams) ii. Neurological Processes 9. Jerome Kagan believes that temperament is the result of our physiology and neurology. According to Kagan, what is the basis for human shyness or behavioural inhibition? - The basis for human shyness or behavioural inhibition is based on different thresholds for arousal in the parts of the brain that control responses to uncertainty – the amygdala and the hypothalamus iii. Environment 10. Why is it impossible to know whether Kagan’s findings are causes or effects? (See first paragraph in this sub-section only) - Critics argue that behaviour shapes the brain and thus shy children may exhibit different neurological patterns than outgoing children because their exhibition of shy behaviour contributes to the neural networks that developmental processes in the brain, such as pruning, allow to develop and those that are shut down due to lack of use iv. Long-term Stability - (optional reading – not on exams) C. Self-Concept • Knowledge of self, self-awareness 0-2 years 2-6 years 6-12 years 12 – 20 years Chp 6 – Infancy Chp 8 – Early Chil
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