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Chapter 8 Independent Questions.doc

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PSYC 208
Maria Weatherby

Chapter 8: Social and Personality Development in Early Childhood ____________________________________________________________________________ I. Theories of Social and Personality Development A. Psychoanalytic Perspectives – (optional reading – not on the exams) B. Social-Cognitive Perspectives 1. Define the viewpoint held by Social-Cognitive Theories. - social-cognitive theories assume that social and emotional changes in the child are the result of, or at least are facilitated by, the enormous growth in cognitive abilities that happen during the preschool years - the theoretical perspective asserts that social and personality development in early childhood is related to improvements in the cognitive domain i. Person Perception 2. (a) Define person perception. - person perception is the ability to classify others according to categories such as age, gender, and race (b) Why are preschoolers’ observations and categorizations of people inconsistent? - preschoolers’ observational and classification skills are less consistent than those of older children  the inconsistency is because they tend to base them on their most recent interactions with those individuals - preschoolers categorize others on the basis of observable characteristics such as race, age, and gender (c) Define the cross-race effect and age when it is established. - the cross-race effect is a phenomenon in which individuals are more likely to remember the faces of people of their own race than those of people of a different race; this is established at age 5 ii. Understanding Rule Categories 3. (a) What is the difference between social conventions and moral rules? - social conventions are rules that have nothing to do with our fundamental sense of right and wrong  ex. if you attended a formal dinner at which forks were on the right side of the plates rather than on the left; social conventions in this sense would be the customs that govern where to place flatware - moral rules are rules that have a basis in morality  ex. laws that forbid stealing and unwritten rules such as the one that prohibit you from flirting with our best friend’s romantic partner - we may not care about social conventions because they do not have anything to do with our fundamental sense of right and wrong while we have little tolerance for the breaking of rules that we view as having a basis in morality (b) When do children appear to understand this difference? - children understand the difference between social conventions and moral rules between the ages of 2 & 3  ex. children view taking another child’s toy without permission as a more serious violation of rules than forgetting to say “thank you” iii. Understanding Others’ Intentions 4. What influences preschoolers’ judgments of others’ intent according to the research findings by Nelson (1980)? See third paragraph. - Preschoolers make judgment about actors’ intentions both when faced with abstract problems and when personally motivated by a desire to avoid punishment - Child’s judgments were also influenced by outcomes; they were more likely to say a child who wanted to hurt his playmate was “good” if he failed to hit the child with the ball; these results suggest that children know more about intentions than Piaget thought; they are still limited in their ability to base judgments entirely on intentions II. Family Relationships and Structure A. Attachment 5. (a) Compare attachment at 12 months and at 2-3 years of age. - attachment at 12 months is normally established to at least one caregiver; attachment at 2-3 years is just as strong, but many attachment behaviours become less visible  ex. 3 year olds still want to sit on Mom or Dad’s lap but they still are likely to seek some closeness when Mom returns from absence (b) How does attachment change when preschoolers are approximately 4 years old? - during the preschool years, children who are securely attached to parents experience fewer behaviour problems - those who are insecurely attached display more anger and aggression towards both peers and adults in social settings such as daycare and preschool - at age 4, a child’s internal model of attachment appears to generalize; Bowlby argued that the child’s model becomes less specific property of an individual relationship and more a general property of all the child’s social relationships - children who are securely attached to their parents are more likely than their insecurely attached peers to have positive relationships with their preschool teachers (c) Preschoolers’ compliance is context-dependent. Identify two contexts or situations that are associated with high compliance and two contexts or situations that are associated with low compliance. - high compliance when replying to safety requests such as “don’t touch it if it’s hot” - high compliance with prohibition about care of objects such as “don’t tear up the book” - low compliance with requests to delay such as “I can’t talk to you now, I’m on the phone” - low compliance with instructions about self-care such as “please wash your hands now” B. Parenting Styles i. The Authoritarian Type – See lecture notes ii. The Permissive Type – See lecture notes iii. The Authoritative Type - See lecture notes iv. The Uninvolved Type - See lecture notes v. Canadian Parenting Styles - (optional reading – not on the exams) vi. Parenting and Child Discipline Note: The definition of discipline will be discussed in the lecture templates. 6. (a) Identify the two key problems that make it difficult to establish what constitutes effective discipline. 1) It is difficult to establish the harmful or beneficial effects of various forms of discipline  Ex. do physical punishments, such as spanking or washing a child’s mouth out with soap, work any better than nonphysical corrections, such as giving verbal reprimands, reasoning with an explanation of consequences, or enforcing a time out away from sources of attention or enjoyment 2) Research had not concluded how intense and frequent effective discipline needs to be ; the differences among mild, moderate and severe discipline are not clearly defined - Regardless of the type of discipline, any corrective measure that is too extreme or too frequent can become child abuse that contributes to detrimental physical and emotional outcomes (b)What do Canadian child-care advocates suggest in terms of the most appropriate child discipline methods? (See top of p. 216) - they advocate the use of minimal nonphysical interventions in the context of a loving family relationship, and they encourage parents to be proactive by improving parenting skills and anticipating and limiting situations that will require intervention - they do not think that physical interventions are appropriate (c) Define inductive discipline. - inductive discipline is a discipline strategy in which parents explain to children why a punished behaviour is wrong (d) Identify the research findings related to the effectiveness of inductive discipline. - research has found that the majority of preschool-aged children whose parents respond to demonstration of poor self-control, such as temper tantrums, by asserting their social and physical power – as often happens when parents physically punish children – have poorer self-control than preschoolers whose parents use inductive discipline Research Report: “Disciplining Children: The Canadian Perspective” (p. 215) Note: Paragraphs one, two, and three of this “Research Report” is covered in the lecture templates. 7. Read the final/fourth paragraph in this “Research Report”. According to Joan Durrant (2004), Canada’s law on permitted spanking of children leaves many questions unanswered. Identify what remains unanswered, according to Durrant. - Questions such as “How is a parent to distinguish between physical punishment and physical abuse?”, “How should child welfare professionals advise parents about what is an acceptable degree of and circumstance for physical discipline? (is one spank or two appropriate?)”, “Is a tap on the bum or back of the hand permitted?”, Is it okay to spank with an open hand so long as it leaves no mark or bruising?”, “How calm do parents have to be before they punish?”, “Can you wash a child’s mouth out with soap?”, “What about forcing a child to remain motionless in an awkward stance?” C. Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Parenting Styles 8. (a) Identify the research findings on Asian American parenting. - in general, Asian American parents display an authoritarian style - the finding that Asian American children score higher than their white counterparts on almost all measures of cognitive competence argues against the assumption that authoritative parenting is best - developmentalists have found a link between Asian American children’s achievement and authoritarian parenting  parents who have the most authoritarian parenting style have the highest- scoring children - authoritarian parenting style was not associated with any negative outcomes in Asian American children; which is not what would be predicted from Baumrind’s model (b) Identify the research findings on Aboriginal child-rearing practices in Canada. - findings found that Aboriginal child-rearing practices in Canada are similar to the permissive style; but they found no association with negative outcomes in Aboriginal children a), b) – these studies suggest that parenting style may be dependent on the cultural context in which parents and children live, so that as the cultural context changes the best corresponding type of parenting style changes with it D. Family Structure - (optional reading – not on the exams) E. Divorce 9. Summarize all four paragraphs in this section (pp. 221 to 222 and Figure 8.6). - There has been a steady decline of divorces from the all-time peak in 1987 - Half of all divorcedthccur within the first 14 years of marriage and ¼ of all marriages are dissolved by the 4 anniversary - For many families, divorce happens during the prime child-rearing period; there can be little doubt that divorce is traumatic for children - Some negative effects of divorce are due to factors that were present before the divorce - Children living in post-divorce/separation situations have a higher prevalence of problems in most areas except unsocial behaviour (low prosocial behaviour) - In first few years after a divorce, children typically exhibit declines in school performance and show more aggressive, defiant, negative or depressed behaviour - Children of divorced parents are more likely than their peers to engage in criminal behaviour - Children living in step-parent families also have higher rates of delinquency, more behaviour problems in school, and lower grades than do those in intact families - The negative effects of divorce seem to persist for many years - Children whose parents divorce have a higher risk of mental health problems in adulthood - Many young adults whose parents are divorced lack the financial resources and emotional support necessary to succeed in post-secondary education; a majority report that they struggle with fears of intimacy in relationships; they are most likely to rely on social assistance income - Adults whose parents divorced are themselves more likely to divorce - As a general rule, these negative effects are more pronounced for boys than for girls F. Understanding the Effects of Family Structure and Divorce – (optional reading – not on the exams) III. Peer Relationships A. Relating to Peers through Play 10. (a) See the fifth par
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