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Chapter 10 Independent Questions.doc

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PSYC 208
Maria Weatherby

Chapter 10 Independent Questions nd 1. What does society of childhood mean? (See 2 paragraph in the introduction section) - the society of childhood means that children make up their own social rules that differ from those of the adult society  ex. in most Canadian school lunchrooms, food trading is common; a child who refuses to trade may be seen as “stuck-up” I. Theories of Social and Personality Development A. Psychoanalytical Perspectives 2. (a) What is the challenge of middle childhood according to Freud? - Freud thought that the challenge of the middle childhood years was to form emotional bonds with peers and to move beyond those that were developed with parents in earlier years (b) According to Erikson, why might a child develop a sense of inferiority rather than industry? - a child might develop a sense of inferiority rather than industry because children develop a sense of their own competence through the achievement of culturally defined learning goals  to develop industry, the child must be able to achieve the goals her culture sets for all children her age; if children fail to achieve the goals set by their culture, these children will enter adolescence and adulthood with feelings of inferiority B. The Big Five Personality Traits 3. (a) What do trait theorists believe? (See first paragraph in this section) - Trait theorists believe that by middle childhood, the various dimensions of temperament have evolved into 5 dimensions of personality (the Big Five) (b)Identify the Big Five Personality Traits (You need to know all of Table 10.1) (c) Why might children high in agreeableness display less aggression than children low in agreeableness? - This is because children who are high in agreeableness use more effective conflict resolution strategies than do those who are lower in this trait (d)How might an extraverted child handle peer rejection differently than an introverted child? - An extroverted child responds to peer rejecting by becoming more determined to be accepted by the group while an introverted child would likely be so emotionally distraught by the taunts of her playmates that she would actively avoid social situations in the future C. Social-Cognitive Perspectives – optional reading (not on exams) II. Self-Concept 4. What new aspects of self-concept are understood by the end of middle childhood? - Psychological self - Valued self A. The Psychological Self i. Personality Traits 5. Define the psychological self. - the psychological self is a person’s understanding of his or her enduring psychological characteristics ii. Self-efficacy – optional reading (not on exams) B. The Valued Self i. The Nature of Self-Esteem 6. The valued self is equivalent to self-esteem. Define self-esteem. Self-esteem is a global evaluation of one’s own worth ii. How Self-Esteem Develops 7. (a) According to Susan Harter two things influence a child’s self-esteem. The first thing is described in paragraph one and two. The second thing is described in paragraph three. - self-esteem is strongly influenced by mental comparisons of children’s ideal selves and their actual experiences  ex. social self-esteem, the assessment of one’s own social skills, is higher in popular children than in those who are rejected by their peers  the degree to which social self-assessment affects self-esteem depends on how much one values social skills and popularity - self-esteem is strongly influenced by the overall support the child feels she is receiving from the important people around her, particularly parents and peers  apparently to develop a high self-esteem, children must first acquire the sense that they are liked and accepted in their families, by both parents and siblings; next, they need to be able to find friends with whom they can develop stable relationships (b) How do the criteria by which children learn to evaluate themselves differ in individualistic and collectivist cultures? - in individualistic cultures, like that of Canada, parents focus on helping children develop a sense of self-esteem based in the children’s own interests and abilities - in collectivist cultures, such as China’s, children are taught to value themselves based on cultural ideals about what a “good” person is (c) Why is self-esteem at least moderately consistent over time? (See final paragraph) - because the child tends to choose experiences that will confirm and support it and because the social environment – including the parents’ evaluations of the child – tend to be at least moderately consistent iii. Meaningfulness – optional reading (not on exams) III. Advances in Social Cognition A. The Child as Psychologist – optional reading (not on exams) B. Moral Reasoning i. Piaget’s Moral Realism and Moral Relativism 8. Describe Piaget’s two-stage theory of moral development. (See paragraphs 1- 5) - Piaget noticed that younger children seemed to have less understanding of rules - at the beginning of the middle childhood period, children are in the moral realism stage; they believe that the rules of games can’t be changed because they come from authorities, such as parents government officials, or religious figures  moral realists also believe that all rule violation eventually results in punishment - after age 8, Piaget proposed that children move into the moral relativism stage, in which they learn that people can agree to change rules if they want to; they realize that the important thing about a game is that all players follow the same rules, regardless of what those are IV. Social Relationships A. Family Relationships 9. Some studies have found that the single best predictor of better childhood outcomes, regardless of family structure, socioeconomic factors, or time spent in school, church, playing sports, or involved in the arts ishaving family meals together (5 or more meals per week with a parent) . - Children who had regular meals with a parent had significantly better academic success and fewer behavioural problems - Teens who ate dinner regularly with a parent had significantly better academic success and psychological adjustment, and lowered rates of smoking, drinking, drug use, early sexual activity, violence, and suicide attempts  They have nutritionally superior diets i. The Child’s Understanding of Family Roles and Processes – optional reading (not on exams) ii. Attachment 10. How does the parent-child agenda change when the child reaches elementary school? (See last paragraph) - Disciplinary actions with parents decline - Key issues now include children’s household responsibilities, whether they will receive allowances, or be paid for chores, standards for school performance, and the like iii. Parental Expectations 11. (a) Why does the parent-child agenda change in middle childhood
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