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Lecture 25

PSYC 217 Lecture 25: Sleep deprivation

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PSYC 217
Benjamin Cheung

 Sleep deprivation: o Produces a brief improvement in ~60% of patients (REM-sleep deprivation has been shown to produce more enduring effects). o Sleep deprivation may be more effective in combination with antidepressants o With depression you often see a change in sleep patterns and so the sleep deprivation is suppose to reset this o But the effect wears off after you get your sleep back  Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) o A procedure in which electric currents are passed through the brain, intentionally triggering a brief seizure, which may trigger changes in brain chemistry o only as last resort for severe depression or treatment resistant depression o Past: They use to be awake, needed convulsions o Now: they are under anesthesia, don’t need convulsions anymore  Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). o a procedure in which large electromagnetic coil is placed against the scalp near the forehead. o The electromagnet used in TMS creates electric currents that stimulate nerve cells in the region of the brain involved in mood control and depression. o Very few side effects o 10-20 treatments in 2 weeks o Painless treatments o We don’t know the long term effect – how long does this last  Exercise o High intensity aerobic or anaerobic forms are as effective or equally effective as pharmacological therapies o Pharmacological treatment may act quicker, however exercise may have longer lasting effects o Not being isolating = team sports so it is a social event o Self-esteem = clear defined goal that can be reached, self efficacy increases, distracting DRUG & SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION  Most drugs impact some aspect of neurotransmission  Drugs can impact receptor binding OR influence the concentration of NT in the synaptic cleft o Increase neurotransmitters in the gap o Post can reduce and not let it be broken down so there is more in the gap o Prevent reuptake Pharmacological Treatments  There are four standard classes of antidepressant medications: o 1. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)  Iproniazid and its relatives, increase synaptic levels of the monoamine neurotransmitters (i.e., norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and epinephrine) by inhibiting the enzyme that breaks them down: monoamine oxidase (MAO).  Increases concentration of monoamines  50s – 60s  First used for TB but made them super happy so then they gave it to the hospitals for depressed people  Very serious side effects  MAOIs have many side effects; a dangerous one is t
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