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Scientific researchdocx

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PSYC 218

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PSYC 218  Definitions : o Populations: complete sets of objects that we’re studying, that we’re interested in make statements about. The way we are going to do this is by using samples and subsets of the population. The techniques used are used to draw inferences about the population to make generalizations of populations. o Variables: properties and characteristics that objects have that take different variables  Independent: the one that the researcher manipulate  Dependent: the variables measures to try to determine if the independent variable had an effect. o Data: any measurements made on the subjects of an experiment. o Statistic: is a number that is calculated on a basis of data that represent a sample. o Parameter  Scientific research: o Two categories:  Observational studies: research that involves the scientist simply observing measurements going on in the world  Naturalistic observation: watching  Parameter estimation: estimating a population value on the basis of a sample  Correlational research: statistical techniques (correlation and regression) –used to describe the relationships between and among variables. Predicting and using  Experiments: determining if one manipulated variable is changing another variable  Types of statistics: o Descriptive: describing or characterizing obtained data o Inferential: how to perform an analysis that lets us preform an inference that effects the whole population just on the basis of a sample obtained.  Random sampling: o Drawing samples of populations that are not biased in any way. o Random sampling ONLY has the laws of probability appropriately apply o Its only when we have this that we can achieve representativeness The birthday p
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