o Populations: complete sets of objects that we’re studying, that we’re interested in make
statements about. The way we are going to do this is by using samples and subsets of
the population. The techniques used are used to draw inferences about the population
to make generalizations of populations.
o Variables: properties and characteristics that objects have that take different variables
Independent: the one that the researcher manipulate
Dependent: the variables measures to try to determine if the independent
variable had an effect.
o Data: any measurements made on the subjects of an experiment.
o Statistic: is a number that is calculated on a basis of data that represent a sample.
o Two categories:
Observational studies: research that involves the scientist simply observing
measurements going on in the world
Naturalistic observation: watching
Parameter estimation: estimating a population value on the basis of a
Correlational research: statistical techniques (correlation and
regression) –used to describe the relationships between and among
variables. Predicting and using
Experiments: determining if one manipulated variable is changing another
Types of statistics:
o Descriptive: describing or characterizing obtained data
o Inferential: how to perform an analysis that lets us preform an inference that effects the
whole population just on the basis of a sample obtained.
o Drawing samples of populations that are not biased in any way.
o Random sampling ONLY has the laws of probability appropriately apply
o Its only when we have this that we can achieve representativeness
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