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Julia Kam (11)
Lecture 13

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PSYC 260
Julia Kam

Learning and Memory Different Models of Memory • Memory storage permanence vs. impermanence • We remember what we represent mentally, which is biased by previous experience • Memory = the process in which we encode, store, and retrieve information o Memory incorporates perception, decision making, and response selection Modal memory model • Sensory input  sensory memory (unattended information is lost)  short-term memory (unrehearsed information is lost)  long-term memory (some information may be lost over time) • Attention exists between sensory memory and short-term memory, and encoding and retrieval exist between short-term memory and long-term memory • Sensory memory o Large capacity o Same modality as experience o Very fast decay (within a second) • Short-term store o Limited capacity (7±2 items can be maintained at a time) o Rehearsal maintains information o The more we rehearse, the more likely the memory will proceed to long-term storage o Seconds decay • Long-term store o Unlimited capacity o Semantic coding o Modest decay • Sensory Memory: Span of Apprehension o How much can a person “see” in a brief instant? o How much is registered in sensory memory? vs. How much do we forget before we have to recall? o Partial report paradigm  Participants were briefly presented with an array of letters and asked how many letters they could recall  High tone group had to report the top row of letters, medium tone group had to report the middle row, and the low tone group had to report the bottom row • The tone was presented right after the stimulus appeared  Partial report • Recalled 3-4 items • Multiply by 3 rows, total recall would be 9-12 items  Full report • Most people only recall 4 items  Decay rate: decayed from 11 to 4 letters in 1 second  We do seem to “see” or register more items in our sensory memory, but we simply cannot get the information out fast enough before we forget. • Short-Term Memory vs. Long-Term Memory o Neuropsychological evidence  Patient HM: shows normal short-term memory, but cannot form new long-term memories • Evidence for the distinctiveness of short-term memory and long- term memory  Patient JB: shows impaired short-term memory, but have no problem forming new long-term memories • If we have to rehearse the information in the short-term memory in order to transfer it to long-term memory, how can the patient form long-term memories without having short-term memory? o Primacy effect  Recall advantage of first items (due to storage in long-term memory)  Affected by presentation rate • Longer interstimulus interval = more time for rehearsal = higher chance for items to reach LTM o Recency effect  Recall advantage of last items (as information lingers in short-term memory)  Affected by delay between stimulus presentation and memory test • Recency effect disappears if delayed testing phase lasts longer than 15 seconds (with no rehearsal due to filler task) o Serial position curve  Dissociation by logic: manipulate characteristics that influence one part of the curve but not the other • Manipulation of LTM  primacy effect • Manipulation of STM  recency effect • Problems with modal memory model o Properties of STM and LTM stores are inconsistent among different modalities o Possible to access LTM without going through STM (e.g. Patient JB) o Rehearsal does not always lead to better memory (e.g. incidental learning task)  The amount of time spent rehearsing does not necessarily
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