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psyc 302 perceptual development.docx

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PSYC 302
Kiley J Hamlin

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Psyc 302 Perceptual Development SENSATIONANDPERCEPTION sensation: physical aspect of sensations perception: interpretation of those sensations BIG QUESTION are babes experiencing things in the same way as adults? are the changes we see in early development based on maturation of the brain areas involved or because of environment EMPIRICIST V. NATIVIST empericist: infants perceive differently; more poorly nativists: largely though maturation of brain areas; experience not as important VISION vision is so critical, but it isnt easy to design VISUALACUITY acuity=clarity of vision infants prefer stimuli with high contrast (preferential looking method=the farther you get away from stipes or the closer the stripes are together the baby will eventually see the stripes as gray=this is their acuity) 2 degrees of vision=newborn; how much theysee, in focus, is a tumb width at 10 inces from their face vision isnt at fully adult levels until 3 years VISION DEVELOPMENT imput from the environment is important in vision development cones=in fovea of the eye; cones get more developed over 1st few months newborns are terrible at smooth pursuit; when they develop this they need to follow slow moving large objects visual accommodation=accomodate different things at different distances=gets better as you age COLOR VISION color vision system is rapidly developing by 2 mo their color vision is really good adults show categorical perception of color (despite the fact that color is a continuous variable adults perceive color categorically) [this is shown cross culturally] CATEGORCIALPERCEPTION OF COLOR? you have 4 colors which are equidistant on the wavelengh chart you take one of those colors and habituate babies to it then you test them on a color which is categorically the same to one and then show them a color the same distance, but crosses the cetegorical boundaries; babies look longer by 4 mo's at the color that is in a different category OBJECT PERCEPTION TESTING SIZE CONSTANCY babies were shown a certain 3D object at varying distances from the baby and therefore varying retinal size once babies have seen this object at all these distances do they see it as one object, or many objects varying in size? then you show two objects which are the same exact retinal size (you show them the same object farther away or the original object); babies look longer at the larger object which is twice as far showing that they think it is a novel object and therefore different from the original (even though it is the exact same retinal image as the original) OBJECT PERCEPTION object segregation how do people know there is object segregation; a gap b/n objects; color/texture cues do infants think that all things that touch are one? MOTION CUES TO OBJECT SEGREGATION whatever moves together is one object=common motion TESTING COMMON MOTION IN INFANCY the rod study ******important to know first you show babies a solid rod or a broken rod= at baseline babies do not prefer one rod over the other then you stick an occluder over the rod and show the rod moving behind the box you habituate them to the occluded rod later on you will show them a full rod and a broken rod the sensation is that there are two rods moving around a box, but their perception is that it is a full rod moving behind the box and then they look longer at the broken rod OTHER CUES BEING USED? even if the two pieces of the rod are different colors the babies still perceive them as one rod and not a broken one newborns do this too at birth we use common motion as a cue to 'one-ness' How many objects: you show a person grabbing the blue part; you show each of the objects breaking apart or staying together; babies look longer when they perceive an object as being one falll apart MORE COMPLEX OBJECT PERCEPTION NEWBORN FACE PERCEPTION EARLY FACE PERCEPTION from birth: we prefer happy faces opposed to neutral or angry faces; prefer attractive faces newborns look most on a face where there is the highest contrast by 2 months babies track a faces like adults do U-SHAPED CURVE the idea that you have some skill which seems to go away and them reemerge newborns preferentially track faces, 1.5mo's old do not, 3 mo olds preferentially track faces FACE PERCEPTION DEVELOPMENT a newborn comes to the world, looks at things with more elements in the top, by 12 hours he prefers mom's face; he gets exposure to many many faces perceptual narrowing=younger babies seem to be better at discriminating faces if they aren't a part of their prototype than older babies 9 mo old fail the monkey tasks and other animal tasks; except for those babies which got trained to distinguish between monkeys 6 mo old are able to discriminate one monkeyfrom another as well as one person from another perceptual narrowing=lots of discrimination with the domains you need and less capacity with those you dont need younger babies distinguish more than older babies as though the stuff you dont need gets thrown out PERCEIVING PICTURES retinal image is 2D, but yet we perceive 3D world. Pictures are 2D representation of the world one baby was raised in a house with no pictures at all, that baby, when tested at 18 mo's was able to recognize that a picture was a representation of his g-ma seeing an object in a picture is kind of what our retina is doing so the fact that babies recognize images is expected young babies, when shown a picture of a cookie, think of it as a real cookie and try to eat it babies do no understand that pictures are representations of something and not actually that object by 19 mo's babies begin to understand the symbolic nature of pictures THE DEVELOPMENT OF DEPTH PERCEPTION Eleanor Gibson: mountain goats must innately, perceive depth 3 TYPES OF DEPTH CUES binocular monocular= ex. if you wanted to paint depth BINOCULAR CUES: 2 EYES binocular disparity: your two eyes are seeing slightly different images of the world and your brain measures and interprets the image from each eye and combines it convergence: eye muscles have to work to focus on something really close to you stereopsis: how we know we see depth using both eyes THE DEVELOPMENT OF STEREOPSIS Descartes: you have some system in your brain which computes whats the difference between the retinal image and then perceives the depth; any age related changes are ca
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