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pscy 302 biological development-1.docx

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PSYC 302
Kiley J Hamlin

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PSYC 302: BIOLOGICALDEVELOPMENT PREFORMATIONISM prenatal life starts with a fully formed individual in a sperm or egg, it just getts bigger and stronger over time PREFORMATIONISM IS PATENTLY FALSE new stuff emerges during development=epigenesis Aristotle took chicken eggs and opened them up at different time in their development to see if new things were forming Now: scientists can move a cell from one part to another and the cell will change and adapt to where it is place PATENT FALSE, BUT... cultural variation on when life begins conception? when fetus feels pain? Birth? The Beng: newborns get to choose whether they survive or not survive and until they choose they are not alive COMMON PATTERNS IN BIOLOGICALDEVELOPMENT you get less specialized first, cells become more specialized over time Cephalocaudal: developing head first Proximo: innards first, skin develops last CAANALIZATION the idea that as we proceed in development, at first you are a cell at the top and you can be anything, but as development progresses your cells go down deeper and deeper in canals and they can't change what they are going to become SEX CELLS gametes: eggs and sperm they are haploid: only one set of 23 chromosomes meitic errors: gain or loss of whole chromosomes (ex. autism is the addition of chromosome 21); error in meiosis eggs are the only cell you can see with the naked eye in the human body FERTILIZATIONAND CONCEPTION zona reaction: egg blocks other sperm from entering PROCESSES OF DEVELOPMENT 1. cell division 2. cell migration 3. cell differentiation: once they migrate they take on whatever is needed for that area 4. apoptosis 3 PERIODS OF PRENATALDEVELOPMENT ***KNOW FOR SURE FOR TEST Germinal (conception until the zygote implants in the uterine wall), embryonic and fetal (not a lot of qualitative change) period GERMINALPERIOD: THE MORULAAND BLASTOCYST morula: clump of cells Early blastocyst: cells shift where some cells become the outside and others stay on the inside; the outside becomes the support system to keep the baby alive while in the uterus THE EMBRYONIC PERIOD after 2 weeks the zygote implants in the uterine wall zygote becomes blasycyst when it begins to differentiate and it is called an embryo most sensitive period of development; stuff that goes wrong in this period is more likely to have a longer lasting impact on the baby THE EMBRYO **know where the brain comes from the top layar of the inner cell mass which folds in on itself and becomes the brain and spnal cord 11 WEEKS:AFETUS fetal breathing: intake and exhalation of amniotic fluid; helps form the lungs SLEEPING end of pregnancy fetus: 30 weeks and up, are like a newborn, but are inside the mother and have 4 kinds of sleep Quiet sleep active sleep: most of sleep time is active quiet awake active awake: most of awake time is active FETALSENSES studies: you can add more glucose to the moms amneotic fluid and infants eat more of it habituate: you measure a fetus HR (when they are interested their HR will go down) sight is the least developed sense in newborns (can be expected because the womb is dark) FETALLEARNING fetal habituation to speech sounds newborns prefer mothers voice and smell: prefer to hear their mom's voice played (they will suck more on a soother when they hear their moms voice), same with their new mothers smell they prefer food they experienced prenatally: babies whose mom ate spicey food will like spicey food more than infants whose mom didnt eat it newborns prefer stories they've heard prenatally: it isnt that theyprefer the actual words, it is that theyremember the rhythmic pattern of the story SEX DIFFERENCES BEGINAT CONCEPTION a sperm containing the Y chromosome is faster because it is lighter than sperm with the X chromosome women=XX men=XY women are protected from X-linked disorders by having two X chromosomes SEXUALDIFFERENTIATION still in embryo phase; they create sex organs which could be either male or female Every baby is prepared to become a boy or a girl and then their chromosome causes hormones to be released which causes the organs to become either male or female Adifferent level of testosterone in the prenatal environment could have some role if the child is
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