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Lecture

Psyc 302 Cognitive development.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 302
Professor
Kiley J Hamlin
Semester
Fall

Description
Cognitive development Jean Piaget (1896-1980) • Most influential developmental psychologist ever • Many of his ideas have received scrutiny in recent years, but his influence remains JEANPIAGET'S ASSUMPTIONS • The child is an active learner • Distinct from behaviorism’s stimulus-response • The child is constructivist: constructs rules about how the world works; development is the enrichment and change of those rules • A stage theorist: development proceeds in a series of 4 distinct stages: • Sensorimotor, Pre-Operations, Concrete- Operations, Formal Operations intentionally tried to figure out what was happening in the world he had rules for how the world worked; these rules were tested by children stage theorist: 4 large stages sensorymotor=1st 2 years of life PIAGETS DEVELOPMENTALPROCESSES • equilibration: the tendency and goal of an organism to fit well within its environment • motivates all of cognitive development: try to make your cognition reflect the world • better fit (adaptation) achieved through two processes: • assimilation • accommodation • assimilation: the child interprets some aspect of the environment in terms of pre-existing behavioral and mental structures • restricted • accommodation: behavioral and mental structures are altered to better fit with the environment • change • When assim & accom are balanced, child is in state of equilibrium; when unbalanced, disequilibrium, & push toward accommodation • Schema: patterns of interaction between the organism and the environment; both mental structures and the behaviors they drive • Infants/ kids have sets of schema that become more tuned to the environment through assimilation and accommodation equilibrium= you want to make the way you think about the world and how it works to match with how the world actually works assimilation: incorporating new info into the rules you already have accommodation: if your new info goes against your rules you must change your rules to fit this new instance schema: babies interact through the world through schemas; patters of interaction b/n you and your environment; patterns of interaction kids have sets of schema which get better over time PIAGETS STAGES •Sensorimotor: Infancy •Child understands the world in terms of the actions (s)he can take on it •Preoperational: 2-6 •Child has representations, but thought is still illogical •Concrete Operational: 6-12 •Thought is logical, still limited to the possible world •Formal Operational: over about 12 •Can reason logically about abstract possibilities Sensorimotor: kid understands world solely in terms of the actions the child does on the world; literal interaction b/n child and world preoperational: birth of representation; kids can deal with things outside of the here and now, but they dont do a great job of it concrete operational: when kids can think through problems they have in their mind (have to be problems possible in real life) formal operational: IMPORTANT STUFFABOUT STAGES • Each stage has smaller stages within it • Qualitative change through assim & accom: thinkers in one stage are different kinds of thinkers than in other stages (not just better/worse) • Domain-general; apply to all aspects of the world • Invariant order; no skipped stages qualitative stage: kids actually think about the world in qualitatively different ways than adults THE SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (0-2 yrs) • Contains 6 distinct stages • Mostly concerned with the object concept = how an infant understands the properties of solid objects • Does the baby know that objects continue to exist, as they are, in space and time, outside of his experience with them? = object permanence • Does mom still exist when she leaves the room? • Piaget says NO, at least not until well into the sensorimotor stage **dont need to remember exactly when or what each of the 6 stages are called; but know when particular errors happen and what would make a child different in one stage opposed to another kids have rules about objects object permanence: when any part of you or an object goes away, they exist continuouslythrough time and space whether or not you see them infants dont start with object permanence; objects exist onlywhen you see, hear, touch them; object only exists when you are actively engaged with it STAGE 1: REFLEXES (0-1 MO) 1st month is getting better at these reflexes; assimilating things into that reflex (assimilate breast into sucking reflex) STAGE 2: PRIMARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS (2-4 MO) repeating reflexive behaviour just because they like what happens/the wayit feels they have a choice and choose to continue doing these reflexes circular reaction: looping behaviour primary: happens on the kids own body they can now intentionally repeat the behaviour STAGE 3: SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS (4-9MO) secondary: something distinguished from the baby (doing an action on an object that isnt themself) babies are coming across more objects, but they are not seeing them outside of the actions they do on it (ex. baby thinks that a rattle is only something when they are shaking it) OBJECT PERMANENCE stages 1-3 babies have no object permanence out of sight out of mind: if an object is no longer there then a baby wont search for it babies shouldnt track objects that stop moving STAGE 4: COORDINATION OF SECONDARY SCHEMA(9-12 MO) adding 2 behaviours together (ex. means-end behaviour) now babies are able to appy multiple schema to the same object (the object they are seeing and feeling is the same thing) OBJECT PERMANENCE IN STAGE 4 they start searching for objects which are out of sight objects now exist when they are out of sight this progression of the object concept isnt all or nothing; at first they still have problems integrating behaviours with object concept TheA-not-B error: baby now knows that an object exists outside of their visual fiels; if you hide an object under or inAthe baby will search for it there; if you hide it in the same place they will find it again in A; if you hide it in B the next time (the baby sees you hide it in B) baby will look for it inA; there will be multiple failures to search for an object in B even when they see you hiding it in there babies show theAnot B error typically up until 10 mo's Piaget thinks this error exists because theyhave troubles coordinating their different schemas (they ignore the critical things about where the object is in time and space and focusing on what they did the last time--egocentric) STAGE 5: TERTIARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS (12-18 MO) they understand that where an object is in space is more important than where it was when they looked for it last shell game: put a marble under a shell and move shellAwith shell B; babies fail at this game; they have objects understanding that an object has moved when they haven;t seen it move STAGE 6: THE INVENTION OF NEW MEANS THROUGH MENTAL COMBINATIONS objects now exist on their own in time and space even when you have no access to them (evidence: language; a baby can say the word ball, and think about it symbolically, even if the ball isn't there) pass a not b task around 12 mo's passing shell game around 18 mo's PIAGET REDUX (I) stage 1.2.3 objects only exist through interactions with them in real time stage 4.5.6 objects start to and are getting better at existing outside of babies PIAGET REDUX (II) babies actively form object concept: constructivist egocentric throughout most of this period; things in relation to me allocentric: in relation to the actual world WAS PIAGET RIGHT? most of Piaget's theories have been replicated; however, he may not have been right in how he described what was happening in their mind in that there might have been physical factors contributing to their errors THEA-NOT-B ERROR babies know where the object is, but cant express their knowledge babies often look to the correct location and then they will keep looking at B when they reach forA; its as though there is something not connecting to where they think the toyis and where they reach SO WHATS THE DEAL? perhaps babies arent good at the a not b task because they aren't good at the means- end task once they have successfully lifted a cloth and got a toy, now you are asking them babies might be more rigid and inable to flexibly do this task in a new locaion Study: there is a see-through barrier (the object can be touching the barrier or not, or it can be short or tall); baby can reach for objects which the barrier is short and near; if the barrier is short and far there is a two part reach; if the barrier is tall and object is far you need to do a compound reach which they are not good at even if you see the object you cant get the objects which require planning if they fail at a task which doesn't require object permanence because of planning we cant rule out that they fail the a not b task because of a lack o
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