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Lecture 1

psyc 302 cont of lecture one and lecture 2.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 302
Professor
Kiley J Hamlin
Semester
Fall

Description
PSYC 302: INFANCY CONT OF LECTURE ONE THEMES OF DEVELOPMENT stability and change: whether your initial environment is critical and creates stability for your character over time ACTIVE V PASSIVE: Passive: whatever passes their retina they take in (at 1st there isnt much a baby can do to decide what they take in; as they grow up they can become more active and decide what and how they take in) Ababy can actively get different experiences from the world through their personality type.Ahappy baby elicits more happy behaviour from those around them The baby elicits different situations depending on their temperment As they get older they become more and more active ; the more physically active they are the more they can actively change their world TIMING MATTERS: CRITICALPERIOD: a baby must have a certain experience or develop something by a certain time or they are in trouble. HAS TO happen now Sensitive period: SHOULD happen now the idea if you do not use it now you lose it. If the right imputs arent there st the right time there is trouble ex. mother-newborn bonding in 1st few minutes: if mom and babydont interact with the first few minutes it is sometimes thought to cause detriments in development Ex. building trust in the 1st few years: if you never have any relationships in the 1st few years that leads to massively bad outcomes ex. learning languages REALLIFE EXAMPLE: ROMANIAN ORPHANS outcomes: they werent able to move around so their muscles didnt develop and this stunted their growth they were severely stunted socialy; they would do things like rocking, if they got picked up they would cling to people, they would bite people, even when they were older kids WIDESPREADADOPTIONAFTER COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM if there is no effect of early experience we can say that kids are changeable or plastic TIMING MATTERS FOR PLASTICITY depending on when the orphan was adopted, when they left the orphanage all the kids were delayed when they left those adopted before 6 mo's turned out normal and showed little if any effect of the deprivation b/n 6 and 24 mo were smaller, had lower IQ's, and some social issues, the longer they spend out of the orphanage the better they got greater than 24 mo's long lasting deficits one issue: babies adopted later had more bad experience than those who were adopted earlier; so you dont know if there is a sensitive/critical period in which recovering from deprivation MORE PLASTICITY brain injuries are fairly common in the 1st years of life and are often much worse when they happen later in life this shows that the infant brain is more plastic THE SOCIOCULTURALCONTEXT differences in environment can effect children one of the biggest factors being SES (income and education) the higher your SES the better outcomes for a child growing up in poverty has detrimental effects (physical, emotional, social development) resilience: some kids do well despite the fact that grew up economically disadvantaged some cultures practice co sleeping where parents and chilren sleep together in the same bed; this could have vastly different effects on a child who sleeps alone or with their parents LECTURE 2 METHODS OF STUDYING DEVELOPMENT WHAT DO YOU WANT TO KNOW? METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES reliability: if another researcher tried to do the same study you want to make sure they get the same results inter-rater reliability: two coders get the same results. Two different raters think the same thing test-retest reliability: given the same baby in the same situation you would want to see the same result 'file-drawer' phenomenon - cool findings get published, and studies which fail to replicate a finding aren't Validity: you want to make sure you are measuring what you think you're measuring internal validity: external validity or ecological validity: is what you found generalizable to people/babies in general. Is what you are studying in the lab relatable to the world? WEIRD subjects: here in the western world are a minoritywhen compared to the world. Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic people are NOT the majority EXAMPLE: ECOLOGICALVALIDITY PROBLEM: for a while it was thought that people were different because we have a theory of mind (figure out what someone wants to do based on their mind) and NHP don't someone thought that it would be ecologically invalid to study NHP's by pointing at the food because NHP's never point When you test NHP's on competitive ToM tasks they do really well at it this shows that testing someone in an ecologically valid way is extremelyimportant METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES experimenter Bias: it is incredibly difficult to remain unbiased when you care about your work METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES IN INFANCY RESEARCH babies have 5-10 min max attention spand cant walk, write, you cant ask then what they're thinking therefore your methods need to be short and engaging and still measure what you want to You need different methods for different ages of childrens as they develop/grow very quickly you need to adjust your study even if you are wanting to answer the same questions CONTROLFOR EVERYTHING: more things will influence results for kids and you cant ask them to see what causes their decision so you need to counterbalance for all of them; you must be extra careful to control for everything when studying infants PARENTS AREAPROBLEM: parents want your child to succeed; it is very hard to make a parent unbiased ETHICS: infants cant actively withdraw their consent COMMON RESEARCH METHODS NATURALISTIC OBSERVATIONS: observe in natural setting, no attempt to influence behaviours very ecologically valid, you see how your subjects act in the natural world you may gain new insights and have more research questions there is no constraint on what could happen; the behaviour you want to study may not happen at all you cant test your hypothesis to find causation experimenter maycause an effect just bybeing there STRUCTURED OBSERVATION: you can try to simulate the natural environment in a way to draw out the intended behaviour you influence the environment in order to see how they would react naturally CORRELATIONALDESIGN: measure two variables and see if they are related you can see how strong the relationship is, but correlation dne causation no directionality third variable problem EXPERIMENTALDESIGNS: IV and DV and manipulations. IV manipulated. DV measured the only design which you can infer causality from Ex. Zantac (antiacid) lots of babies are on Zantac to reduce colic (crying) which was thought to be due to acid reflux in babies COMPARING B/N & W/I SUBJECTS DESIGN b/n: this is easier but it doesnt account for individual differences w/i: one group gets both treatments; you can account for individual differences; however it is veryhard to determine if the variables aren't influencing each other QUASI-EXPERIMENTALDESSIGNS usually are cases in which you compare groups like you do in a reular experiment; however, you do not use
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