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PSYC 302
Kiley J Hamlin

PSYC 302 MORAL DEVELOPMENT THREE VIEWS OF THE INFANT Innately evil: Innately good: society corrupts us through bad parenting, video games, etc Amoral: babies are just empty vessels MORE RECENT FRAMEWORKS Evolutionary: being good and working together has benefits, but being good is subject to cheating so there are moral judgements in order to keep the cheaters in check Cultural: no evolve, adaptive base, but all cultures have realized what is right and wrong; there are vast cultural differences in what things are considered to be moral MORAL REASONING The same action in morally different ways; intentions are an important part in determining if something is moral or not Being able to reason on these different implications of the same behaviours means that we have morality This has caused researchers to think preverbal populations do not have morality If you can’t reason; you can’t be moral THE DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL REASONING Both of them believed that young kids are fundamentally different and go through different stages PIAGET Listened to kids playing games and examined how they came up with rules and enforced them and concluded that morality begins when you take any rule presented and consider that these rules are fixed and rigid and cannot be modified Morality of constraint: when you are a parent you have to constrain your parent; you may do this with little explanation of why these rules are in place and then kids learn that what mommy says, is good It isn’t until you are working/playing with peers that you learn a more relative morality of cooperation Parents of really young kids aren’t able to explain rules to their kid, but they can once the baby is older PIAGET’S STAGES Before the age of 3 kids have no explicit awareness of rules at all 3-7: anything breaking a rule is wrong and following a rule is good 8-10: learn that some things are give and take 11+: superior moral reasoning PIAGET’S EVIDENCE Young kids focus on who caused the worse outcome He thought parents were so concerned with outcomes that kids think about the punishment they would get in the same scenario EISENBERG’S STAGES In preschool kids seem self centered and think the boy should do whatever he wants (go to the birthday party because that is more fun); not much sense of helping Once they get older they think of others needs and think you should help them (but with no real in depth reason as to why they should help) EVALUATING STAGE THEORIES There are domains in which it would be ok to change a rule and others where it would not be ok TESTING DOMAIN THEORY There is a kid who is doing some transgression; see if kids think it is or is not ok Even at age 3 kids still say it isn’t ok to hit someone even once a teacher says it is ok At the age at which all rules are created equal and all rules are followed kids are able to have flexibility in their rules By age 3 kids say it is wrong to wear PJ’s to school unless the teacher says it is ok Kids think breaking moral rules are the worst EARLIER MORALITY At what age do kids start looking guilty when they do something wrong? You can see some evidence by age 2 kids show some sort of guilt when they have done something wrong and that they want to play by the rules sometimes Kids who seem more guilty when they have done something wrong are more well behaved Young kids are more moral when their parents explain why it is wrong There are different parenting styles which fit better with a child’s temperament MORAL BEHAVIOR Moral reasoning and moral behavior might not be related to each other EMPATHY Noticing when others are upset and expressing that it disturbs you Innate empathy: or something aversive about others suffering OTHER PROSOCIAL ACTS Once toddlers are physically able to they are quite willing and able to help others with their goals INFANTS HELP As soon as they are physically able to help they are willing to Chimps show these same kinds of behaviors and chimps aren’t socialized to help If you reward kids for helping their helping goes down Once someone is helped the arousal goes down and the level of arousal goes down whether they are the ones to help or not (they just want to see the person helped and don’t care who does it) They help even when there is something else they could be doing SO WHY DO THEY HELP 23 mont olds: Sharing study in the CIC Kids are happier giving then receiving They are happiest of all when they g
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