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PSYC 302 NOV 13TH.docx

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PSYC 302
Kiley J Hamlin

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th PSYC 302 NOV 13 SOCIAL COGNITION WHAT’S AN AGENT? Motivated by mental states All things we attribute to people and not to objects like a chair Anything with a face is seen as an agent Things that do not follow the rules of object-ness: not ruled by the laws of physics AGENCY FROM MOVEMENT BIOLOGICAL MOTION Point light tests: you can tell it is human, tell what animal it is, attribute emotions to them Very impoverished information about a person moving and people are still able to infer personal attributes Babies: newborns shown hen motion Newborns prefer to look at the right side up hen motion showing that preference for biological motion is innate WHAT’S AN AGENT? Gaze following Agents see things; do babies understand that agents are capable of perceiving and if they do, they should look to see where the agent is looking When does gaze following indicate that babies know you can see or perceive? If babies know that you need to see it in order for there to be something there babies should distinguish between eyes open head turning and eyes closed head turning 9 mo olds aren’t yet distinguishing between closed and open eyed head turns 10 mo and older babies almost never follow someone’s gaze when their eyes are closed WHAT’S AN AGENT? Contingency Now you know babies follow peoples gaze you can see what babies think is an agent by seeing what gaze they follow If you are in the room with the green blob and it has a face you will follow its gaze; if it doesn’t have a face and it just turns you don’t follow its gaze The experimenter comes in the room and speaks with the blob which makes mechanical noises back to the experimenter and then the babies see it as an agent because it is responding contingently and will follow its gaze DO INFANTS TREAT AGENTS AS OBJECTS? Hab babies to the normal object condition or the human agent one and then test them on contact or space (in object case they look longer at the space condition) and in the human agent test they look equally long when the person hits the other as well as when the one person goes behind the ecluder stops, then the other comes out SO...DO INFANTS TREAT AGENTS AS OBJECTS? DO INFANTS VIEW AGENTS’ BEHAVIOURS IN TERMS OF MENTAL STATES? Woodward paradigm: test to see if babies think people have specific mental states Babies hab’d to two objects on the stage and a human hand comes in and reaches for one of the objects Woodward made a way to pit the physical and mental explainations Babies are habd to hand grabing object on the left; in test condition you switch side of the objects and see if the babies think it is a bigger change that the hand reached for the new toy still on the left side, or if they see it as a bigger change to grab the same object on the other side DO INFANTS VIEW ALL OBJECT-DIRECTED BEHAVIOURS IN TERMS OF MENTAL STATES? Woodward did the same study with a non agent and found that babies found both test conditions to be equally interesting DO INFANTS VIEW ALL ACTIONS OF AGENTS AS INTENTIONAL? 14 mo olds are more likely to imitate you if you finish by saying there opposed to saying whoops Failed attempts: asks how babies view actions Meltzoff: person who tried but failed to do a bunch of things; if you gave the babies the same object they imitated your goal opposed to the action you failed to do If you do these studies with mechanical devices infants do not infer the persons goal and do not complete the action This is done with over 14 mo olds HABITUATION? Babies hab’d to either a fulfilled goal o
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