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Lecture 11

PSYCH 309 - Lecture 11 (Implicit Learning) - Oct 15.docx

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PSYC 309
Todd Handy

Lecture 11 – October 16 , 2013 • Tie back to attention and global/local processing • Last class – priming – trigger semantic network, not consciously aware of, impact thinking o stuff that happens outside normal channels of conscious awareness • How do we learn/understand, start to grasp what happens in external world Implicit Learning • The process of acquiring knowledge about the world without intending to do so, and independent of whether or not you’re consciously aware of what is being learned o E.g. remember previous slide or what happened this morning – not trying to, automatic • Not consciously trying to learn • Makes us very effective species because we try to learn stuff automatically • HM – first taught us about implicit learning; • Learning independent of his amnesia – felt like new task for HM • you don’t usually think about how heavy something is • it’s the idea that when you’re planning these motor moves, you learn how heavy things are • your system gets used to it until there’s an expectancy violation o e.g. pick up something that looks heavy, but not o System where you pick up and learn, but we don’t have to [try] learn; Show we gain that knowledge, aspect of motor learning • Motor learning – e.g. learning sports, riding bike Classical Conditioning • The Office  Jim bugging Dwight in a clever way • Jim conditioned Dwight to have Altoids (brand of mints) whenever Jim’s computer made the Windows restart sound • Illustrates that we have acute sensitivity to understanding what follows what in nature • A lot of the world around us is very temporally predictive (A  predict B) • Expose to environment when one thing happens  predict something to follow o Transition probability • How a sound can be paired with an action? How does classical conditioning relate to implicit learning? o you learn to make an association that one thing predicts another – example of learning o (Jim conditioning Dwight to have Altoids whenever he hears the Windows sounds  Dwight implicitly learned); it’s implicit, don’t consciously think about o Temporal contingency (POSSIBLE EVENT TO EXIST) Bulf (2011) • Trying to make visual analogy using shapes – same kind of thing as classical conditioning • The Office – e.g. sound paired with offering of a mint • Newborns habituated to one of two stimulus patterns: A more complex one (left, HDC – High demand condition) or a simpler one (right, LDC – Low demand condition) • 2 pairs (low demand condition) – Square  X, circle  triangle o (1.0 = 100% possibility of next shape) o Keep showing pairs, intermixing 2 pairs; circle/square following X or triangle o Half the time X followed by circle, half the time x followed by square o Do you pick up that square predicts X, circle followed by triangle? • 3 pairs of shapes (high demand condition) o A little more complex • The “preferential looking” paradigm – non-verbal infants, seeing what they know o Take an infant, sit them in front of a computer screen and show them one of the sequences; the idea is to habituate (get use to) the infant to the sequence o then you plop them in a parents’ lap, and you have two computer screens o one shows the habituated pattern, another shows the shapes in a different random sequence (new/novel pattern) • the question is does the kid look at the old or new sequence? o Preference to look at new things o see where they look at left/right o track % time spent looking at old v. new pattern o kids learned old sequence, they would look at new sequence • high demand condition (HDC) – 3 sets of shapes o Amount of looking time, kids didn’t show preference between old/new pattern o Not picking up on probabilities, more information than they can be sensitive to • low demand condition (LDC) – 2 sets of shapes o spent more time looking at random sequence than the one they were habituated to o Preferential looking evidence - they did learn the simple sequence, liked looking at random one better • 3 day old babies – simple visual pattern, lack of good visual acuity o Though have some sense, sensitive to what happens next; nothing adaptive, but system showing acute sensitiivity o fundamental about predicating things • We predict the future all the time • General capacity to pick up on temporal (time) associations – what follows what? (e.g. sound follows action, visual etc.) domain general sensitivity o Schemas (organized pattern of thought/behaviour) – help us understand how to behave, predict how things work  Implicit rules – e.g. raise hand to talk o Use other than domain general learning to predict future • Steve Heine – We don’t always have that mechanism acutely sensitive o things that can happen to us that might trigger heightened sensitivity to pick up new pattern; suddenly engaged NYT “Nonsense” Article • The “Meaning Maintenance” Hypothesis o Exposure to situations where your sense of patterns breaks down (i.e., when things don’t make sense) can spur your statistical learning system into action, as a means of helping to maintain a
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