Class Notes (808,032)
Canada (493,018)
Psychology (2,016)
PSYC 309 (42)
Todd Handy (35)
Lecture 9

Lecture 9-16 - Individual Cognition.docx

11 Pages
Unlock Document

University of British Columbia
PSYC 309
Todd Handy

Lecture NYT Research Paper Blind to Change Cost attention-grabbing - Bottom-Up Attention - The reflexive or urban stimulation automatic tendency of our visual attention to get Attention drawn to “eye-catching” stimuli, such as a ­ Cognitive effort try to shut flashing light or uniquely-coloured object; “the Forster (2012) - We are typically unaware of our global/local state, or out distracting stimulation; optical equivalent of a shout” what they refer to as “processing style” (Part 2) ­ Berman (2008) subconscious override to inhibit bottom-up attention - Top-Down Attention – The conscious, willful – Bottom-up decision to attend to some specific aspect or - Can “prime” broader (global) vs. narrower (local) Attention: effect detail of the visual environment semantic categories; this is the link between 9 nature/urban “perceptual scope” and “conceptual scope” (L. 10) ­ Looking at same picture – depending on what we know ­ Change blindness: frequent inability of our - Exposure to novel events triggers a global -> see different things visual system to detect alterations to something in plain view processing style, but if they are “threatening”, then it ­ Werner & Ties ­ Knowledge can help guide ­ Visual system can focus on only one or very triggers a local processing style (L. 11) – Top-down few objects at a time; lot of detail we don’t pick Attention: football where we put our attention, up on impact what we do with top- ­ Brain – master at filling gaps; compiling down attention cohesive portrait of reality ­ Depending on knowledge, change in detail may or may not make a difference 10 Priming Blue Room, Red Room – Zhu (2009) Mehta (2009) How do you explain the idea of ­ Associations – activated without a person’s o “Approach” anagrams solved more quickly conceptual effect of global/local in awareness  influence what they are thinking on computer with a blue desktop. ”avoidance” respect to semantic association? about or doing - Bargh (1996): anagrams solved more quickly on computer w/ red background. - Priming age • Local frame of mind – ­ Colors may affect cognitive performance activating fewer network because of the moods they engender • When asked to memorize a list of words, stereotypes participants recalled significantly more words • Global state of mind – ­ Brightness or intensity of colour, not just - Priming colour itself, might have had an effect when the list was shown on a computer with a rudeness broader network red background, relative to a blue or neutral ­ Effects occur outside of individuals’ background. - • Red and blue activate different motivations, enhance performances • When asked to generate as many uses for a on different types of brick as they could think of, participants who cognitive tasks worked on a computer with a blue background produced significantly more creative uses, • Color theorists: color consciousness relative to those who did the task with a red or influences cognition and ­ Red: danger, mistakes, hazard, highest neutral background. behaviour through level of compliance  avoidance motivation learned associations • Proof-reading to assess attention to “detail”; remote associations test to assess creativity. • Conclusion: red vs. blue ­ Make people more vigilant, risk adverse  detailed oriented, focus, careful can activate avoidance • Design a toy from a choice of parts, then have the motivation, enhance ­ Blue: openness, peace, tranquility  design rated for originality (creativity) and practicality performance on detailed approach motivation (attention to detail). oriented cognitive tasks ­ Benign environment, innovative  explorative, • Evaluate the persuasiveness of an ad that risky manner included product details vs. potential uses of the object ­ • Rate preference for a brand that emphasizes “prevention” vs. “approach” focus of the product ­ Implicit Learning Nonesense Bulf (2011) 11 • “Sensation of the absurd” - an experience • Statistical learning – implicit learning of that violates all logic and expectation statistical regularities within sensory input ­ HM – amnesia • Study: same sensation may prime the brain o Way of acquiring structure within continuous sensory environments ­ Classical to sense patterns it would otherwise miss conditioning o Get rid of that feeling, look for meaning, • Trying to make visual analogy using shapes ­ coherence • Newborns habituated to one of two stimulus • Dr Proulx and Steven J Heine: maintaining patterns: A more complex one (left, HDC – High meaning or coherence demand condition) or a simpler one (right, LDC – • Study 1 – reading task Low demand condition) o Group who read absurd story – identified • possibility that statistical learning is more letter strings = more motivated to look influenced by the restricted cognitive capacities for patterns than others; forming new of newborn infants, or whether its functioning patterns they wouldn’t be able to form does not differ from statistical learning shown otherwise by older infants o Spur heightened sensitivity to statistical • high demand condition (HDC) – 3 sets of probability, learning associations shapes o Amount of looking time, kids didn’t show • Study 2 – make an argument about themselves preference between old/new pattern • Non-sense (condition 1) – exposed to this o Not picking up on probabilities, more information than they can be sensitive to situation, increased sensitivity pattern in world, trigger statistical domain learning mechanism • low demand condition (LDC) – 2 sets of shapes • Artificial Grammar Task o spent more time looking at random sequence than the one they were habituated to • 45 letter strings with certain predictable transition properties (mimic common letter o Preferential looking evidence - they did learn the simple sequence, liked looking at random one better combinations in regular language) • Result: newborn learner’s limited cognitive • “surprise” memory test – 60 letter strings, which strings they have seen, which new resources constrain the functioning of statistical learning, narrowing the range of what can be (30, 30) learned • Issue: whether memory performance was affected by which story they read • • Memory performance better, significantly more letter strings recognized by group that got nonsense (Kafka, Argue something they are not) • To pick up on transition probability – need to pay attention to details o Triggers heightened attentional state, pick up on letter strings – local state, priming, details, alert • The “Meaning Maintenance” Hypothesis o Exposure to situations where your sense of patterns breaks down (i.e., when things don’t make sense) can spur your statistical learning system into action, as a means of helping to maintain a continuous state (achieve new level) of understanding. 12 Unconscious Unconscious Mind Dijksterhuis (2006) Thinking • People struggling to make complex • ‘‘deliberation-without-attention’’ hypothesis - decisions did best when they were purchases of complex products were viewed more distracted, and were not able to think favorably when decisions had been made in the ­ Schooler consciously about the choice at all absence of attentive deliberation. (1993) • relation between mode of thought/deliberation (conscious vs. unconscious) and complexity ­ Reasoning • Study 1 problem (capacity of information) and quality of choice o 4 cars; 4 attributes (simple) or 12 attributes (satisfaction) ­ Insight problem (complex) ­ Conscious thought – deliberation/thought while conscious attention is directed at problem at hand o Conscious – think for 4 mins ­ rule-based, very precise; necessary to follow  Proper choice under simple, poorly under complex strict rules o Unconscious – distracted for 4 mins, then o Conscious thought suffers from low capacity choose of consciousness, less suitable for very complex issues • Study 2 • Unconscious thought – thought/deliberation in o Attitudes toward each of 4 cars absence of conscious attention directed at the o Conscious – able to differentiate quality of problem cars under simple o sudden thought pops into consciousness; indecision  preference, results of unconscious o Unconscious – better able to differentiate quality of cars under complex thought o conform to rules in that it detects recurring • Study 3 patterns, as implicit learning shows o Aspects of a product taken into account in 40 different products = “complexity score” o does not suffer from lower capacity; large amounts of information can be integrated into an evaluative summary judgment o Actual study, students presented with list of 40 products • Why conscious deliberation sometimes leads to o Thinking does not make people more poor judgments satisfied, nor does complexity o Consciousness has a low capacity – choosers o Correlation calculated between thought and take into account only a subset of relevant post-choice satisfaction information o Lead to suboptimal weighting of importance of  Medium complexity – no correlation attributes; inflate importance of some attributes at  Simple – positive correlation the expense of others  worse choices; equal weighting to unequal factors (e.g. making a list) • More people thought consciously about • Conscious thinkers were better able to make simple, more satisfied the best choice among simple products,  Complex – negative correlation • More conscious thought about complex, less satisfied whereas unconscious thinkers were better able
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 309

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.