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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - 16 Additional Notes.docx

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PSYC 309
Todd Handy

Lecture 9 – Attention - Change blindness – inability to detect changes in plain view - Too many visual stimuli, our brain is limited to what it can focus on o Feels like we recognize a lot of information, but in reality, we only pick up on few things o Overload -> we scan our surrounding until something catches our attention - Bottom up attention – automatic, something that grabs our attention like a loud noise - Top bottom attention – conscious effort to focus on SOME SPECIFIC DETAIL - [Forster] o Global processing – PROCESSES INFORMATION HOLISTICALLY  Vague, unclear, ambiguous information  broad structures in memory  Brain makes sense of information to make a cohesive story; FILLING GAPS o Local processing – PROCESSES THE PARTS; detailed information  narrow structures in our memory  Clear, concrete information  dig deeper - INTEGRATE NEW INFORMATION INTO KNOWLEDGE STRUCTURES o MEANING OF LOCAL FEATURE DEPENDS ON GLOBALASPECTS o Our meaning of spoon is not depended on local state (material) - Face recognition worse after participants primed to focus on local features - Our knowledge guides what we put our attention on; IMPACT TOP DOWN ATTENTION o WHAT WE KNOW IMPACTS HOW WE SEE THINGS - Consciously, COGNITIVE EFFORT IN trying to ignore distracting stimuli, but subconscious OVERRIDE TO INHIBIT bottom up attention - [Berman] COST ATTENTION-GRABBING URBAN STIMULTION o After going on a nature walk, participants had shorter reaction time; were able to inhibit distracting stimuli - Perceived threat -> HEIGHTENED LOCAL STATE; local processing to pay attention to thing we might not have otherwise noticed - A LOT OF TIMES UNAWARE OF THINGS AFFECTING OUR BEHAVIOUR, OUR LOCAL/GLOBAL STATE - CAN PRIME BROADER (GLOBAL) V. NARROWER (LOCAL) SEMANTIC CATEGORIES o LINK BETWEEN PERCEPTUALAND CONCEPTUAL SCOPE Lecture 10 – Priming - Priming – not aware or knowing of something influencing our behaviour, TRIGGERING SEMANTIC ASSOCIATION THAT IMPACT THINKING - Connections – strength depends on experience, learned associations; strength/weaken over time; EXTENT YOU ASSOCIATE TWO THINGS - Red/blue – different motivation, enhance performance on DIFFERENT TYPES OF cognitive task o Red – avoidance motivation; danger, alert, local processing o Blue – approach motivation, peace, creative, global processing - Colours – influences cognition and behaviour through learned associations - [Bargh] o priming with age – unscrambled words associated with old age, participants walked slower after experiment o priming with rudeness – unscrambled words associated to rudeness, participants more likely to interrupt researcher in conversation - [Mehta] o Study 1: anagrams (red – SOLVED QUICKER FOR avoidance WORDS; blue – approach); brand PREFERENCE (PREVENTION V. APPROACH) o Study 2: list of words (red – more recalled); uses of brick (blue more creative) o Study 3: proofreading (red – more correct answers); Remote Associations Test (blue – more correct answers) o Study 4: Toy, different parts of different colours; red – practical, blue - creative o Study 5: PERSUASIVENESS OF advertisement (red – details, blue – functional use) o Study 6: participants AWARE OF DIFFERNTIAL EFFECTS? Exam question: How do you explain the idea of conceptual effect of global/local in respect to semantic association? - Global – ACTIVATING broader network - Local state – narrower network of associations Lecture 11 – Implicit Learning - Implicit learning – ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE WITHOUT intending to do so; independent of whether we are conscious of learning or not o E.g. HM – AMNESIA INDEPENDENT OF LEARNING - Classical conditioning – acute sensitivity to UNDERSTANDING WHAT FOLLOWS WHAT o how one predicts the other to happen o Making associations between two things; implicit, DON’T CONSCIOUSLY THINK ABOUT IT - [BULF] – VISUALANALOGY USING SHAPES o Preferential Looking Paradigm – babies tend to look at new things o In study, habituated (get used to) infants to a pattern o Low demand condition – simple 2 sets of symbols; shows learning of pattern, preferred looking at random sequence o High demand condition – complex, 3 sets of symbols; babies showed no preference, NOT PICKING UP ON PROBABILITIES - Domain general sensitivity – general CAPACITY TO pick up on temporal (time) associations o SOUND FOLLOW BY ACTION, ETC. - Schemas (organized patterns of behaviour, thinking) – UNDERSTAND how we act, PREDICT HOW THINGS WORK o implicit rules (e.g. raise hand to talk) - Meaning Maintenance hypothesis – when in a situation that doesn’t make sense, lack sense of pattern, spur statistical LEARNING SYSTEM to MAINTAIN continuous STATE OF understanding - Exposed to new situation (e.g. new country, etc) – more aware, pay to things we might not have otherwise noticed - [Heine] – MAINTAINING MEANING OR COHERANCE, BRAIN TRY TO MAKE SENSE OF INFORMATION, IDENTIFY PATTERNS o Study 1 – read story (condition 1 – abstract, ABSURD, doesn’t make sense)  Spur heightened sense of statistical (predicted function based on data) probability, learned associations o Study 2 – argue fact about themselves (condition 1 – something not true) o Then, participants looked at letter strings; people in condition 1 – remembered more letter strings; MORE MOTIVATED TO FIND PATTERN, OTHERWISE WOULDN’T  TRIGGERS HEIGHTENED ATTENTIONAL STATE, Local state of mind, pay attention to detail TO PICK UP ON TRANSITION PROBABILITY - Lecture 12 – Unconscious Thinking - A LOT OF OUR BEHAVIOUR, DON’T KNOW WHY WE FEEL CERTAIN WAY - Unconscious thinking – no conscious deliberate attention o Capacity to process more information - Conscious thinking – FOLLOW RULES o Limited capacity, FOCUS, ZEROED IN; DON’T FACTOR ALL INFO o Equal weighting to unequal factors; SUBOPTIMAL WEIGHTING - [Schooler] o Reasoning problem – solved logically, conscious thinking, step by step o Insight problem – better solved with unconscious thinking, have answer or not o Study: forced participants to verbalize problem solving  Insight – reduced performance as people were forced to verbalize • Like Boroditsky (Russians, language perceive colour blue) 
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