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Lecture 17

Lecture 17-23 - Social Cognition.docx

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PSYC 309
Todd Handy

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Lecture 17 – SOCIAL SPACING - Proxemics – study of personal space, separation between people o Vary between cultures, genders, SOCIAL SITUATIONS, ENVIRONMENT - EDWARD HALL – FATHER OF PROXEMICS, space ourselves relative to other people o Intimate o Personal o Social o Public - Sussman – study: interpersonal distance between cultures o Japanese – stood furthest away when speaking native language o Venezuelan – stood closest when speaking native language o When speaking English – intermediate o Females stood closer together than males o MIDDLE EAST, LATIN – TOLERATE CLOSER SPACE THAN ASIANS, NORTH AMERICANS - UZZELL – study: gender identity and IPD o Whether male/masculine REGARDLESS OF GENDER – stood further away than compared to female/feminine - VIOLATIONS OF IPD – CULTURALLY INSENSITIVE; REPULSION, AGRESSION, AVOIDANCE, VERBALABUSE - BAILENSON - Study: (avatars) male/female walking towards you, avoidance MAGNITUDE o Men walking toward you, move further away than if female (direct gaze) towards men - TAJADURA- JIMENEZ - Study: impact of music valence on IPD o Positive music – stand closer, TOLERATE CLOSER SPACING - Adolphs – study: amygdala and IPD o Person with amygdala lesions – didn’t feel discomfort regardless of IPD; LACKED SENSE OF PERSONAL SPACE o Amygdala activation when someone standing close to you v. further away Lecture 18 – MORAL REASONING - Greene – emotionality and logical reasoning plays a role in moral reasoning o Footbridge – more emotional, high-conflict; most people said no they wouldn’t push man off bridge to save 3 lives  Personally being involved, pushing uninvolved innocent man o Trolley – unemotional, low-conflict; most people said yes, they would endorse action - People who endorsed the drawbridge scenario – took more time and thought about it o Like free effect going away o Removing emotional response from decision - Brain regions for emotions activated in drawbridge scenario; for rational thinking activated in trolley scenario - KOENIGS – VMPC lesions – diminished emotional responses; o more likely to endorse action than average individual for more emotional dilemmas o “ends justify the means”, minimize death - Sommer – Showed amygdala activation v. emotional response o emotional responses higher when people didn’t do right thing, increased amygdala activity o May explain why people act the way they do, make decisions, to avoid spiral of shame, guilt in doing the wrong thing • EXAM: Mirroring free effect – is decision driven by emotionality? o Explain why we see footbridge dilemma and trolley difference in time - Lecture 19 – SOCIAL EMOTIONS - 6 universal human emotions: happy, sad, angry, disgusted, surprised, fear - Adams (2003) – EYE GAZE AFFECTS PERCEIVED EMOTIONS o Study 1: intensity of emotion  Intensity greater when eye gaze directed for approach emotions (happy, anger)  Intensity greater when eye gaze averted for avoidance emotions (shame, fear) o Study 2: EMOTION PERCEIVED AS THREAT, EYE GAZE AS THREAT  High ambiguity of threat (fear directed and anger averted) = HIGHER ACTIVATION OF AMYGDALA  Low ambiguity of threat (fear averted and anger directed) - THERE’S SOMETHING MORE THREATENING/SCARY IF AMBIGUOUS THAN ACTUALLY KNOWING WHAT THE SCARY THING IS - TAKAHASHI – CONTRAST ENVY AND SCHADENFREUDE o Envy – inferiority, resentment of others achievement  related to pain; ACC activated o Schadenfreude – pleasure in seeing someone’s misfortunes  related to reward; ventral striatum activated  related to who you envy (ADVANTAGED AND SELF-RELEVANT) as well, but not necessarily Lecture 20 – READING MINDS - Rankin – damage in right hemisphere that affects understanding of paralinguistic cues o SEMANTIC DEMENTIA – TROUBLE UNDERSTANDING SARCASM o Paralinguistic cues – range, tone, length, emphasis of words o Spoken language is more than just words, but context, who is saying, what they are referring to, how they say it, intention, CULTURAL NORMS IN INTERPRETING - Irony/sarcasm – disconnect between intention of statement and literal meaning - Pexman – processing cues o cues for detecting irony  Speaker  Event  Statement o Consider and integrate multiple cues  interpret intention o Children – assess speaker’s personality, implicit expectation of outcome, tone of voice - Perceptual processing o E.g. directly assessing speaker’s mental state; body language o Adams – Bette
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