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psyc 312 – Functionalism.doc

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 312
Andrea Perrino

History of Psych Student Notes - Functionalism **she dressed as a pirate today FOR THE PAPER: YOU NEED REFERENCES FOR YOURSELF (EX. BOOKS THAT INFLUENCED YOU) Its beginnings Functionalism went beyond restrictive def's of psychology (Wundt, Titchner) Mind: not simply content of mind; but how it works, the uses of the mind, why it matters=applied English lads what are the outcomes of our mental activity they are doing this work at the same time as wundt Charles Darwin - Darwin married his cousin Evolutionary theory proposed/accepted Industrial Revolution beginning, science reliant (machines), less church dogma (less fear) Explorers - lots of variety of animals were encountered, fossils (that revealed the origin or man), Galapagos Islands, similarity to humans (physically and psychologically), continuity Malthus (1798) suggested these things first (survival of the fittest; those that cant match the environment die) to Darwin and Wallace (wallace attempted to publish the same information as Darwin) "survival of fittest" (darwin didn't coin that term, Spencer coined it) - adapt to environment to live variation, individuality can be passed on through generations or can be changed by the environment Lead to… animal/comparative psych: many people started to study these things methodology from other fields came into play in order to explain what was taking place; they all became important to explaining ourselves individual diff., measure, consider; psychology became multifaceted what makes us individuals within society, culture, species? George John Romanes friend of Darwin systemized study of animals: looked at behaviour of ALL types of animals he specifically looked at intelligence comparative: animal intelligence similar to human; he wanted to make a hierarchy of intelligence ladder of mental functions: order of mental possibility and abilities from analysis of anecdotal method (casual reports of observations), infer similarities to humans (introspection by analogy) Sir Francis Galton Darwin's cousin he was stoked by Darwin, initial application of theory Darwin influence, initial application of theory he went further to ask about familial inheritance- specific genius/greatness, twin studies he tested families and found some environmental influence, but much genetic influence; he said we should try to maximize our genetic potential eugenics - the improvement of the human race through artificial selection (test, incentives for breeding) mental testing of keen senses (hearing, vision, taste, etc): Anthropometric Lab he was big into quantification he coined the phrase "nature vs. nurture" development of basis of scatter plots, correlation, factor analysis (inheritance "regresses" - regression- toward the mean) thought the origin of thought can be found in the recollection of our own thought - learn through experiences ideas associated to recollections, past experiences/unconscious (word associations) first use of the questionnaire (mental imagery; he suggested that you can imagine something in your brain) fingerprinting as I.D., composite portraiture (we can take several pictures and composite them into one to find the average beauty, average criminal, etc); travel passion, power of prayer.. Herbert Spencer it was thought that he either had neurosis, schizophrenia, or multiple personality disorder to the U.S. functionalist goes... extended Darwin - Social Darwinism ALL aspects of universe evolves (everything evolves; human, social organizations) utopian view: human perfection inevitable if nothing interferes with the natural order; he thought that the gov't shouldnt help the poor, bad businesses should be allowed to close free enterprise, independence from governing, settlin of the land--work hard or die trying synthetic philosophy- (means synthesis, not fake): he thought the mind alters when it is exposed to complexity mind is in present form due to adaptation by nerves, processes; he thought we should be constantly challenging ourselves William James despaired intellectual thought, troubled; he hated reseach methods; teached at Harvard he was more of a philosopher than a researcher one of the "most remembered", despite lack of formal school: clarity in writing, effective teaching, alternative mind view not elements (too narrow, inferences), but living people in their environment "stream of consciousness/thought"- personal, continuous, cumulative, selective, changes with total experience, the function of adaptation for survival ***remember him for the stream of consciousness/thought thoughts are continuous; and thought that
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