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psyc 312 – Behavourism.doc

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 312
Andrea Perrino

History of Psychology Notes - Behavourism the resurgence of "objectivity"... so...modifications to wundt taking place (structuralist...not long, functionalist, applied in the US) develop/revisit...objective study, mechanism (Descartes), positivism (Comte) empirical approach("show me"...see it, hear it, touch it...not assume/speculate); move away from mentalism, soul, consciousness animal psych, some beyond comparative (Romanes, Washburn, Darwin, Loeb and herbert Spencer Jennings) Clever Hans, "the intelligent horse" owner Wilhelm von Osten, believed animals differed from humans only by access to education taught horse skills --from math to identifying objecs, colours and memory tasks respond with hoof taps or a nod (at objects) public sensation, he took the horse on many tours trickery or real intelligence? Stumpf's grad student Oskar Pfungst discovered subtle NVB (non verbal behaviours) by questioners (head bob); correct responses result of conditioned learning (rewarded, and systematically reinforced) showed us that we can analyze animals, behaviours result as Stimuls- Response; find the relationships Willard Stanton Small searching for effective animal beh. measurement methods created apparatus for wasps, chicks, white rats (with Linus Kline) introduced use of rats in psych research maze tasks (Y-maze): natural as possible- mimic burrows Edward Lee Thorndike study beh, not conscious elements.. connectionism: b/w objective situations/stimuli and response fancied 'em, live with 'em he put cats in puzzle boxes - old wood, looked at escape learn (use latch, chain); log wrong beh, time… "trial and error/"trial and accidental success" - you repeat the behaviours that do work and scrap those that dont work Law of effect: connection strengthened when produces a "satisfying" result (reward), weakened when produced an "annoying" result (discomfort, lack of change). Law of exercise/ use and disuse : connections strengthened with repetition/use, weakened with disuse also studied worker satisfaction, transfer effects of school subjects (we should have more specificity in schooling; make more task specific teaching and learning), produced children's dictionaries Ivan Petrovich Pavlov poverty stricken, unlucky, devoted/obsessive, argumentatve scientist rigorous control (e.g., Tower of Silence), standardized experiments (salivary counts) conditioned reflexes - reflexes contingent on association b/w S+R Neutral stimuli/CS - (light), repeatedly paired (reinforcement) with US (food) = present CS, elicits CR (or reflex) Extinction: CS is presented repeatedly in absence of US, CS loses ability to produce salivary activity Spontaneous Recovery: following a period of rest, the CS can produce the CR Stimulus generalization: stimuli similar to CS could elicit CR (bell of similar pitch) Discrimination: small alterations in CS can alter CR (circle vs. ellipse; degree of discrimination) ….also interestingly - Temperament: diff in dogs/breeds, explain lab result diffs - Experimental neurosis - responses, resistance to stress (result of general health and temperament) ultramaximal inhibition - brain inhibited ("shock" vacant stare, unresponsive) After-effects of U.I.: a) Equivalent phase: normalcy b) Paradoxical: strong stim, weak response (+vice versa) (ex. post PhD went to buy a sandwich and she asked for a tuna fish sandwich, they said they didn't have it and she broke down crying) c) Ultraparadoxical: severe trauma, alterations in personality(stimuli which was positive before is now seen as aversive); tends to be long lasting or permanent …interest in psychiatric illness ("breakdown"); impacted neuroscience John Broadus Watson deliberate school founding; unable to "introspect", preferred science, then study objective beh. impulsive, charismati, confident, nonconformist, took on challenges, notoriety-seeker scandal; married 19yr old student (Mary Ickes), "publicly" fell in love with grad student (Rosalie Raynor)- resign from J.Hopkins (possibly fired?) Famous pub's: "Psychology as the Behaviourist Views It" in Psych Review (1913); Intro to Comparative Psych (1914), Behaviourism (1925) very influentialpublications Study behaviour through.. observe, test stimuli and responses (not personality), verbal responses (- this aspect challenged by "pure beh.") conditioned reflexes (S-R), elements of behaviour - movements, physiological reactions; subjects act and experimenters observe (vs. observe self in introspect) Watson's psychology tackled "classic" topics of psychology in behaviourist way: Instincts - denied existence (later he believed in them), socially conditioned reponses, indiv. diffs. due to training (vs. Galton…and reflected shifting times) Thought Processes - reduced to motor beh, learned subvocal patterns/habits (ex., measured tongue during thinking) Emotions - physiological response/change to stimuli (vs. James), fear, rage and love; not a conscious perception of emotions Studied infants, conditioned responses Little Albert: rat + noise=fear….of rat and other like-objects thus, can condition emotions to random stimuli so of course,…adult emotional disturbance due to conditioned infant, childhood responses set up program of childhood conditioning to prevent disorders in later adults child rearing instruction ("Psych Care of the Infant and Child", 1928): objective beh toward children, unresponsive in
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