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Class notes after Titchener.docx

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 312
Andrea Perrino

Functionalism :Mind: not simply content of mind; but how it works, the uses of the mind, why it matters; Functionalism went beyond restrictive def's of psychology (Wundt, Titchner); what are the outcomes of our mental activity; they are doing this work at the same time as wundt Charles Darwin – Evolutionary theory proposed/accepted Industrial Revolution beginning, science reliant (machines), less church dogma (less fear) Explorers – lots of variety of animals were encountered, fossils (that revealed the origin or man), Galapagos Islands, similarity to humans (physically and psychologically), continuity Malthus (1798) suggested these things first (survival of the fittest; those that cant match the environment die) to Darwin and Wallace (wallace attempted to publish the same information as Darwin) “Survival of fittest” – adapt to environment to live (darwin didn't coin that term, Spencer coined it) Variation, individuality can be passed on through generations or can be changed by the environment Lead to: animal/comparative psych, methodology (from other fields came into play in order to explain what was taking place; they all became important to explaining ourselves), individual differences, measure, consider; psychology became multifaceted George John Romanes: systemized study of animals looked at behaviour of ALL types of animals Comparative: animal intelligence similar to human; he wanted to make a hierarchy of intelligence Ladder of mental functions; order of mental possibility and abilities From analysis of anecdotal method (casual reports of observations), infer similarities to humans (introspection by analogy) Sir Francis Galton: Darwin influence, initial application of theory; Darwin's cousin Familial inheritance specific genius/greatness, twin studies; he tested families and found some environmental influence, but much genetic influence; he said we should try to maximize our genetic potential; eugenics - the improvement of the human race through artificial selection (test, incentives for breeding); mental testing of keen senses (hearing, vision, taste, etc): Anthropometric Lab “Nature vs. nurture” Development of basis of scatter plots, correlation, factor analysis (inheritance "regresses" - regression- toward the mean) Ideas associated to recollections, past experiences/unconscious First use of the questionnaire (mental imagery; he suggested that you can imagine something in your brain) Fingerprinting, composite portraiture (we can take several pictures and composite them into one to find the average beauty, average criminal, etc); travel, power of prayer... Herbert Spencer extended Darwin – Social Darwinism ALL aspects of universe evolves (everything evolves; human, social organizations) Utopian view: human perfection inevitable if nothing interferes with the natural order; he thought that the gov't shouldnt help the poor, bad businesses should be allowed to close Free enterprise, independence from governs, land-- work hard or die trying Synthetic philosophy- (means synthesis, not fake) he thought the mind alters when it is exposed to complexity; mind is in present form due to adaptation by nerves, processes; he thought we should be constantly challenging ourselves William James endorsed metaphysical – held séances/ communicated with dead “Stream of consciousness/thought”– personal, continuous, cumulative, selective, changes with total experience, the function of adaptation for survival ***remember him for the stream of consciousness/thought Stream of Consciousness is cumulative - our thoughts add on as we grow older, however Soc is selective – we choose from what we attend to around us, and pick out what is relevant, combining and eliminating different things – constant changing rather than multiple things at once; thoughts are continuous; and thought that consciousness was selective depending on our environment; if you are conscious you are thinking; our consciousness has evolved as we need it James = more philosophical than empirical; suggests that psychology is not about the elements – too narrow; rather, we should look at living people in their environments; we should know how we adapt to our environment Emotional, irrational beings – hard to study one though in one space of time because we are constantly thinking and analyzing our own thoughts – we don’t get a clear picture of what we are like from small snapshots James-Lange theory of emotion: physiology; See the bear  then run  physiological arousal  fear; the physiological component comes together with the emotional component, and is required to produce that component; physiology leads to emotion; emotions are a result of autonomic reactions Habit – well-learned pattern of beh. Due to malleability of nervous system (we create a habit by changes in the nervous system; pathways are created); needed for societal integrity; involuntary; nervous system pathways which become easy to recreate when encountering a similar situation; he also suggested how to break habits (find social support; make a public pledge) Depends on old paths or make news ones – habits = concerted discharges – a rudimentary physiological term There is a societal function to physiological habits – our characters/personality are formed by habit Said we have our place in society, we are reinforced by habits – habits keep us in our niches Material self: body, stuff you wear, furniture, possessions (a reflection of who you are) Social self: our roles in different situations Spiritual self: (our effort, our ability to persist, our will, our judgment and determination) His descriptions of behavior didn't come down to personality, but choices; how we are brought up and early choices determine later behavior The Chicago School 1. John Dewey Not elemental, responses not simply sensorimotor but has meaning The founder of functionalism (Chicago school) Suggested that our perception of a stimuli changes after interacting with it Reflexes are smooth, orderly sequences of coordinated indivisible movements Reflex Arc: not a straight line between stimulus and reaction – it is circular in nature, and one impacts the other; the stimulus response is circular, response affects perception of the stimuli (not ending with response) S R cycle: Stim –response = similar Pre-empted gestalt – we have to look at the whole The child-candle reflex: Looking/seeing  Light Stimulus  grasping response  burning stimulus  withdrawal Changes meaning of the loop 2. James Rowland Angell no mind body distinction Stamp-marked functionalism and its themes: understand: mental operations, usefulness, purposes it serves (adaptation), conditions under which mental operations occur, psychophysical relations The originator of Chicago functionalism In terms of education, was a sort of PhD – abd – all but defense/dissertation Functionalism – purpose is to understand mental operations: to its elements but its usefulness –the study of why and how surrounding consciousness rather than what What purpose does consciousness serve (adaptive evolutionary value); task is to understand mind’s mediation between environment and organism’s need Actions repeated become habit; the mental direction tends to subside and give way to physiological automatism – a form of psychophysics What are the conditions in which mental operations occur? Biologically-orientated Psychophysical relations of mind and body – functionalism suggests there is no mind body distinction, they work together Major interests of functionalism: determining mechanisms of mind and body’s function together 3. Harvey Carr became a functionalist when it was considered “mainstream psychology” “Adaptive acts” – behavior is continuous, integrated process; we alter our behavior/actions give certain circumstances; ; we act in response to stimuli (if it is cold you put a sweater on) Motivating stimulus: (sensory)response that alters the situation to satisfy motivating conditions (typically sensory – i.e. it being too cold or too hot in the house – or perhaps you have an itch – and if you can’t scratch it you do your best to fix things) (remove stimulus or adapt to it) Study objective, overt behavior (pave the way for behaviourists) Responses always alter the situation to cause a more amenable situation (we correct problems through behavior) or we ignore things when we cannot change it, which is itself, adaptive; thus, each adaptive act has a coordinating stimuli and a coordinating response; so we should study objective Robert Sessions Woodworth “dynamic psychology”: organism has motivation, personal characteristics, reasons for behavior = “S-O-R” (stimulus organism response) he is a functionalist or applied psychologist Mechanism: how something is accomplished Drive: why something is accomplished; drives can be internal or external ...the mechanism can become the drive Credited for popularizing the terms "independent“, “dependent variables“ Looked at how we react to our environments Student of cattell and James Stayed at Columbia his entire career We should not make hasty hereditary conclusions (@ drawin and Galton) – that’s not all that it’s about – we should try and understand out ever-changing behavior, which is not simple motivology: term didn’t stick describes reasons for behavior between the stimulus-response; there are expectations, cautions, fears, etc. which mediate s –r : purpose too; not just stim –response, or reflex response, but rather an organismal response S – O – R Can there be an alteration in amount of food bought when you are hungry or when not – going to store when hungry, you will buy more, and you will buy more crap What if work provides more money than we need – does work become the mechanism or the drive – can the drive and the mechanism switch? We are working only for the money – working for extrinsic motivation rather than intrinsic motivation; we start to work because the mechanism had become the drive (money becomes it) Mary Whiton Calkins assisted by James, 1st female APA Prez. experienced much prejudice: driven by variability hypothesis/functional inequality of sexes; women "damaged" by education Earned her degree at Harvard, but never got her degree; refused degree from welsley (I deserve a Harvard piece of paper) - -they didn’t give it to her; PhD under James and Munsterberg, but never officially awarded it – Harvard wasn't’ coed until 30s Variability hypothesis: men = more variable than women in physiological and physiological variables memory – paired associates method; primacy, recency, frequency (exposed to it more often at regular intervals you will remember it more), vividness (more detail=better remembered); extended Ebbninghuases work – presenting pairs of words with no meaning together - -found that people would create meaning in pairs e.g. desk orange (you see an orange desk) - this is how we remember things by create a paired association self-psychology – science of self, person as relating to physical and social environment; wide definition for the self in psychology from Munsterberg and James; we are different and yet identical to our past Extensive collaboration on dream studies – kept track of her own dreams for 55 nights, waking herself at 1-2 hours, and recording all of these dreams in journal; 4-6 dream sequences are common per night; suggested people dream every night, you have 4 dreams a night; we can control our dreams: lucid dreaming Helen Bradford Woolley early childhood development/learning, school guidance did some cool studies on early childhood development and early childhood learning – did longitudinal studies on adolescents who stay in school vs. .those who drop out to work; looked at how it possible to match education of children to keep them interested and to match possible vocational abilities; worked on child labor reform so that children could not be hired at a young age Psych consequences of work, child labor reform – director of Bureau for the Investigation of Working Children Contrary to nature of times, her parents thought that women deserved and education – al l3 of their daughters attended college had one of the earliest psychological clinics in a public school, supporting special ed classes, consulting with juvenile courts (behavioral dropouts) – supported special ed to keep kids in schools Did some studies to empirically test variability hypothesis; first to debunk biological inferiority but brutally criticized Tested 25 women and 25 men – tested different thresholds; found no difference in emotional functioning, small intellectual differences, and suggested this to be due to different childrearing practices (differences could be due to child rearing) Leta Stetter Hollingworth wasn't able to work and contribute – married women werent allowed to teach Married harry hollingowrth Tried writing children’s stories - -weren’t well received Showed that there is no variation between men and women what she did: compared male and female infants, institutionalized men and women mentally retarded folks, tested college men and women - -sample size well over 2000, look at physical characteristic, weight, height, and showed equal variability between sexes Male achievements = due to unequal educational opportunities – achievement is impossible without vocational opportunities Social factors and cultural attitudes keep women from fully contributing to society showed variation b/w women (not "more average" group than men) Belief that menstruation led to mental and emotional impairments: she debunked this (women arent more stupid when they have their period) challenged motherhood instinct - -believed that women feel achievement by giving birth, and that they can only feel achievement through marriage, and that achievement would not be felt in workplace environment. Reason women not reaching workforce achievement and not moving up in workforce = due to having children; challenged this – where is this coming from – women’s work outside of marriage and motherhood is healthy and normal – also, that not wanting kids is okay Applied Psychology :take psych (learned Wundt) to U.S…. explosion in psyc (interest, labs, journals), popularization; the american psych zeitgeist demanded psychology be useful; lack of academic jobs and Wundtian not a “useable psych”, alter or turn to Darwin and Galton eventual cuts (1912) many psych profs released; people had to convince administrators, politicians of psychology’s worth School enrollment grew massively – we need more people who know how to teach, who can teach teachers Massive contributions to developmental and educational psychology Business is booming – war begins, and psychologists are needed in multiple different ways Earlier half of the 20 century – 1917 to 1950s people take psychology, learn from Wundt, and explosion of interest in psychology in US – fairs and exhibits – tests of acuity and reaction times tested (sensory capacities also tested) administrators and politicians had to be convinced of psychology’s worth and place – it needed to market itself (still happens now – each department is a business – people run departments budget – each dept only given certain amount – each department is fighting for funding for labs too) Higher school enrollment! Lots of babies/children to education (throughout us.); increase in govt spending – more schools built, thus education became a bigger business WW1/WW2 Psych contributed to both wars in similar ways. Applying what we know to: children, schools, employment/work/offices, IO psych, soldier selection (IQ), criminal justice system, immigration (not positive contributions) Harry Levi Hollingsworth PhD from Cattell Vocational psychology – individuals suited to jobs based on traits, aptitudes & attitudes; what are the problems of selecting people into certain jobs Workshops to advertising agents Husband of leta Helped friend at Wrigley’s gum to discover reasons why people chew gum known for dabbling in coca cola trials (1911) where caffeine was a controlled substance (was like this in Canada) – in 1990s, mountain dew in us was caffeinated but not in Canada; in Canada – had to be in chocolate, cola, coffee tea, but no other format Behavioral effects of caffeine – start of psychopharmacological research; ads to show that it is not an addictive, narcotic, and damaging substance (depicted as poisonous); he was asked to do a study b/c cocoa cola was a controlled substance; they wanted to know the actual effects of cocoacola (the courts wanted to know this); he found that it wasnt as bad as the gov suggested Ran rigorous studies of addiction and cognitive function; suggested was not addictive Work to apply to real world what had not been done before Granville Stanley Hall 1st U.S. PhD founded American Journal of Psych, Journal of Applied Psych, and 1st APA Prez. **in the text he is said to be a functionalist; he is thought by a teacher to be applied Genetic development (stages), children; developmental psychologist Recapitulation theory – evolving human race reflected in child psych development; history of individual recapitulates the history of our species (children: animals  savages  civilized  die) (sex?); start as low level undeveloped (from apes and savages and having no language) he also looked at old age and retirement; thinkng that we shouldnt have retirement ontogeny=the history of an individual phylogeny=history of a species Coined “storm and stress” : describe adolescence (characterized by conflics with parents, mood disruptions, and risky behaviour) Studied phrenologists Visited morgue and police Strict belief in eugenics at the same time – he helped women and African American and Jewish and Japanese people obtain an education Looked at genetics, lifespan development, studied childhood (also adolescents and aging) – infancy to old age Gave lectures on adolescence – very controversial - -lectured on sexuality over time (didn’t let women in); was highly criticized for lecturing on this (Angell, titchener, Thorndike all protested this stuff - -v. controversial) He assisted in bringing the Freudian school to the u.s. Suggests that there should be no retirement system for older workers – there will be always inevitable problems with an aging demographic – we should explore this and continue to grow as we age Francis Cecil Sumner higher education of black students, indep Dept. of Psych at Howard Univ. 1st African American PhD in US His own work: perception, advertising, psychology of religion, equality and justice between blacks and whites Postponed grad school and PhD because enrolled in army – travelled and learned multiple languages (it came quite easily to him) – did some translations from various languages for U.S. journals Ended up getting PhD under hall Pushed for higher education of African American black student under backdrop of segregation his own work: perception, advertising, psychology of religion, equality and justice between Black's and White's James McKeen Cattell political, administrator, ambassador: union for Profs (AAUP), founded Psychological Review & edited many others, against the draft egotistical, difficult, experimental drug use (ex THC), fired from university Functionalist: others say he was applied Founded Psychological Corporation – consult, test for industry; sent out consultants to do some work for industry Trained many grad students (woodworth, thorndike) Mental tests - large groups, human individual diff.’s in sensorimotor abilities compared to intellectual ability = few correlations Thought, even though studying under Wundt and titchener, thought them daft and stupid- -- had to teach them how to do things Definitely dabbled in drugs (e.g. THC - -ate it regularly) Recorded the effects of various drugs in journal and like THC best (although he tried others too) Trained woodworth, Thorndike Functionalist or applied? Probably both Working with Galton, testing many people and looking for individual differences, found very few correlations (hated it) May have coined the term “mental test” Daughter = named psyche Alfred Binet Mental tests – “complex superior processes, not elementary ones”… looked at kids: Memory, attention, motor ability, and judgment, comprehension, reasoning Mental age – age of average ability for certain tasks (Binet-Simon scales); what is the age of average ability for certain tasks (collaborated with Theodor Simon – commissioned by French ministry of public instruction) – wanted to answer what could be mastered at different ages—how do we classify kids into classrooms? Wanted to help children achieve Did mental testing beyond what Galton and cattell had done on complex, superior processes rather than elementary ones From ages 3 to 16 = crit range Simon and Binet were hired by the ministry of France in order to find out at what age certain things were happening at Lewis Terman Adopted Stanford-Binet Intelligence; Quotient (I.Q.) concept he coined the term I.Q or I quotient: chronological age and mental age he standardized this test for american children he wanted to have different teachers and classes for kids of different ability early ripe, early rot: gifted students were taller, healthier, more physically developed, were leaders, and that we should dispell the myth of the genius as unable to adapt socially Translated test, made adaptations, and standardized them with American children over time Affiliated with Stanford at the time, hence Stanford Binet test He also tested early right and early wrought – do high IQ children have success or failure as adults – thought that high IQ children would fail as adults – false belief Found to be taller, better adapted, more intelligent, and able to function better later in life – dispelled myth of bungling intellectual kid Psychology goes to War WWI= Yerkes group  develop efficient methods for intelligence tests for army recruiting/rejection, task assignment; had to test large groups of people; one way to do this – multiple choice pencil and paper exams – very efficient; Arthur Otis made this suggestion Army Alpha & Beta: beta = pantomime test – for people who could not read; instructions were given verbally, and heuristically to them – some would have to act stuff out Led to: group personality testing, public acceptance (employees, schools, college applicants) then high use, and then hasty uses (result: lack of credibilty), screening immigrants (Goddard) – defective, feebleminded (even if culturally, linguistically biased); symbol of merit many people applied to become assistants for psychologists – shorter, truncated tests developed; when we got poorly designed tests which gave poor/faulty results; public started to lose faith in testing procedures/processes; women were employed to do a lot of testing because they weren’t employed in other areas; it was then seen as a menial job, and thus devalued – it lost credibility – became seen as women’s work and inferior to empirical pure since – got a bad name Goddard; screened immigrants in Ellis island into new York; Henry Goddard proposed to use IQ test so that retarded people could not gain entry into U.S.; early point for European immigrants; IQ tests showed that many immigrants were “feeble-minded”, of course IQ test is culturally biased, but still to this day, IQ and IQ quotient is still held in high regard on a societal level WWII = personnel selection, best employees; Hawthorne studies (social affects is what affects efficiency); Hawthorne started IO psych movement, recruits for specific job, engineering psychology, ergonomics Psych contributes this time to personnel selection Beginning of hawthorn studies; merely being studied alters behavior (can make you a better worker); the social environment of being questioned and observed changes behavior I.O. psychology followed quickly: looked at specific recruiting for specific jobs People looking at interface interaction (engineering psychology) – this work is done by psychologists; ergonomics/engineering psychology became big at this time Hugo Munsterberg forensic: eyewitness testimony and interrogation lie detector polygraph, expert witness said research should be applied to daily life ecclectic plethora of applied areas (+ education, business, film) forensic: eyewitness testimony and interrogation, created a crude lie detector polygraph (resperation and ,BP), he thought psychologists should act as expert witness I/O psych – consulted on employee efficiency (no talking); if employees arent satisfied with their job and if they are fatigued they will be less efficient Psychotherapy –not subconscious, stop thoughts act opposite to feelings, hypnosis Was against prohibition -- (alcohol) -- secret liquor parties Spokesperson for German beer Women: thought they shouldn't teach because they are good models for boys - -girls should be educated in the home, --women should be in the home, servants of men (yuck) -- got some flack over this Fierce German nationalist when it wasn't popular; supported Germany when he shouldn't Was considered a spy (why he was sent death threats, needed protection, etc.) Power of suggestion in questioning = a problem, possibly leading to inaccurate memories Believed that psychologists should act as expert witnesses to show problems of eyewitness testimony, and to show how people behave and react (1908 ish) Lightner Witmer Not just understand/apply but helping others. looked @ the perception of pain he thought there was something beyond the Freudian psychotherapy Began clinical psych, 1st clinical psychologist; psychology happening within a clinic in conjunction with other professionals Focus: children’s learning and beh. Problems (mentally defective, blind, disturbed) Developed assessment to treatment plans for variety of disorders (disorders in spelling, reasoning, motor development) Multi-modal approach (physicians, psychologists, social workers) …and clinical psych grew, albeit slowly until WWII (1941) PTSD Was a PhD student under Wundt but hated his work; did work examining the perception of pain and how we perceive pain -- hated it all "We shouldn't just try to understand or apply information" "we should help people behaviorally and psychologically"; began clinical psychology and first use of clinical psych Not Freudian psychotherapy He ended up getting an opportunity from the government -- wanted more work done on principal and methods of effective teaching; training teachers with students -- some students had behavioral problems -- how can we help them, who must become involved His focus was on kids learning and behavioral problems "the mentally defective" (blind, disturbed) -- those who weren't doing well; why you not doing well -- how can we help? Assessment procedures and treatments developed as needed through trial and error Disorders and problems can originate from several sources and in several ways Grew slowly until World War 2; post ww2=then exploded afterwards; due to PTSD post the war stress-- reintegration into regular living -- shell shock Behaviorism the resurgence of "objectivity"... so...modifications to wundt taking place (structuralist...not long, functionalist, applied in the US) develop/revisit...objective study, mechanism (Descartes), positivism (Comte) empirical approach("show me"...see it, hear it, touch it...not assume/speculate); move away from mentalism, soul, consciousness animal psych, some beyond comparative (Romanes, Washburn, Darwin, Loeb and herbert Spencer Jennings) Clever Hans, the intelligent horse owner Wilhelm von Osteen, believed animals differed from humans only by access to education Taught horse skills: respond with hoof taps or a nod Public sensation, tours Trickery or real intelligence? Stumpf’s grad student Oskar Pfungst discovered subtle NVB by questioners; correct responses result of conditioned learning Analyze animals, beh result as S-R; find the relationships The counting horse; Taught horse to identify objections, colors, and memory tasks Showed that animals are capable of learning and training The use of vigorous experimental method within realm of animal behavior = important The owner was devastated to find out, and became depressed because people thought that he did it on purpose Willard Stanton Small searching for effective animal beh. Measurement methods Created apparatus for wasps, chicks, white rats (with Linus Kline) Introduced: use of rats in psych research, maze tasks (Y-maze): natural as possible Created different apparatus for diff types of animals Developed maze tasks (y-maze) -- burrows of rats -- what looks most natural Early studied mind reading abilities in children (think of set of numbers and objects -- child guesses) -- people thought that children can read minds of their parents -- no: we give them the answer in subtle ways; we use minor facial cues Study behavior not conscious elements Edward Lee Thorndike study beh, not conscious elements... Connectionism: b/w objective situations/stimuli and response he put cats in puzzle boxes - old wood, looked at escape learn (use latch, chain); log “trial and error/”trial and accidental success” you repeat the behaviours that do work and scrap those that dont work Law of effect: connection strengthened when produces a “satisfying” result (reward), weakened when produced an “annoying” result (discomfort, lack of change). Law of exercise/ use and disuse: connections strengthened with repetition/use, weakened with disuse Also studied worker satisfaction, transfer effects of school subjects (we should have more specificity in schooling; make more task specific teaching and learning), produced children’s dictionaries Ivan Petrovich Pavlov conditioned reflexes – reflexes contingent on association b/w S+R poverty stricken, unlucky, devoted/obsessive, argumentatve scientist rigorous control (e.g., Tower of Silence), standardized experiments (salivary counts) Neutral stimuli/CS - (light), repeatedly paired (reinforcement) with US (food) = present CS, elicits CR (or reflex) Extinction: CS is presented repeatedly in absence of US; CS loses ability to produce salivary activity Spontaneous Recovery: following a period of rest, the CS can produce the CR Stimulus generalization: stimuli similar to CS could elicit CR (bell of similar pitch) Discrimination: small alterations in CS can alter CR (circle vs. ellipse; degree of discrimination) - Temperament: diff in dogs/breeds, explain lab result diffs - Experimental neurosis – responses, resistance to stress (result of general health and temperament) Ultramaximal inhibition – brain inhibited (“shock” vacant stare, unresponsive); this is similar to shock in humans - -severe biological insult: we see vacant stares, unresponsiveness After-effects of U.I.: a) Equivalent phase: normalcy; dogs respond with same saliva regardless of stimulus: comparable to reports of normal people in periods of intense fatigue -- no difference n reaction to normal or trivial stuff b) Paradoxical: strong stim, weak response (+vice versa) (ex. post PhD went to buy a sandwich and she asked for a tuna fish sandwich, they said they didn't have it and she broke down crying); a strong stimulus causes a weak response, while a weak stimulus results in a strong response (whisper = outburst, while shout and they don't blink an eye) c) Ultraparadoxical: severe trauma, alterations in personality; a stimuli which once produce a strong positive response how produces a negative response and vice versa -- the dog may attach itself to a lab assistant who it was previously disliked, or attack a master who was previously liked -- lots of stress causes this; tends to be long-lasting; humans: someone changes political affiliation, changes personality, start giving talks -- rebirth: a new life elsewhere …interest in psychiatric illness (“breakdown”); impacted neuroscience Won Nobel Prize for digestion work in 1904 (medicine and pharmacology at the time) When dogs finished with experiment, tried to bring them back to best state of health possible, and then found homes; if effected psychologically a great deal, were put down Included 20+ women in his lab including daughter; suggested that women should be successful in science lab had rigorous control -- called the tower of silence (steel 3 story building -- ) insulated from sounds and smells -- controlled in terms of dampening of treatment rooms, odor, temp fluctuations -- eliminate any possible source of error Characterized them based on hypocrite’s humors: sanguine - lively, readily conditioned; melancholic = slow to condition; cholic = impetus, difficult and fussy; phlegmatic -- slow to move John Broadus Watson unable to “introspect”, preferred science, then study objective beh. scandal; married 19yr old student (Mary Ickes), "publicly" fell in love with grad student (Rosalie Raynor)- resign from J.Hopkins (possibly fired?) Study behavior through: observe, test stimuli and responses, verbal responses (- this aspect challenged by “pure beh.”) Conditioned reflexes (S-R), elements of behavior – movements, physiological reactions; Subjects act and experimenters observe (vs. observe self in introspect) Watson’s psychology tackled “classic” topics of psychology in behaviorist way: Instincts – denied existence (later he believed in them), socially conditioned Reponses, indiv. diffs. Due to training (vs. Galton…and reflected shifting times) Thought Processes - reduced to motor beh, learned subvocal patterns/habits (ex., measured tongue during thinking) Emotions – physiological response/change to stimuli (vs. James), fear, rage and love; not a conscious perception of emotions Little Albert: rat + noise=fear of rat and other like-objects thus, can condition emotions to random stimuli; 9 month old Albert not afraid of anything, but would reach for rat and he would strike a metal rod with a hammer close to the child --> cry; over time, child did not like anything white and hairy/furry; *thus, we can condition emotions to random stimuli* Adult emotional disturbance due to conditioned infant, childhood responses Set up program of childhood conditioning to prevent disorders in later adults Child rearing instruction: objective beh toward kids, unresponsive in affection or emotion…train them for later life (you do not want to create soft children who are afraid of anything; no whiners) "Great Promoter" of behaviourism: personal networks, personnel consultant, courses to business, military (suggested who should become pilots) “Sold” beh to: advertising co. – eventually vice prez of J. Walter Thompson ad agency Celebrity use, fear and love, create desire/avoidance and the general public through radio magazines, newspapers Psychology overcame earlier positions and was captured by the public in yet another way When he moved from Boston to New York, he took 2 chickens with him; intended to educate and breed them -- wanted to test inherited acquired mental abilities; scrapped the project after determining time length required known for puzzle boxes; a hungry cat is in the box, food is on the outside -- how do you escape: recorded number of movements and length of time; initially learned by accident, then escape time became shorter; trial and error --> trial and accidental success "eliminates behavior which didn't work, and repeat behaviors which do work (cat stops sniffing around and start using their paws more or rubbing things more) Law of effect: learning is strengthened when followed by a satisfying result, and weakened by an annoying result (but mind aspect/emotions still in there) Law of exercise/use and disuse: learning is strengthened with repetition/use and weakened with disuse - - stuff which is done often is learned very well -- practice makes perfect Studied worker dissatisfaction -- workers can enjoy work -- thus improve conditions - -said: if it makes it enjoyable for them, then they will be better workers Transfer effect of school subjects -- teach people math to be good at math -- similar subjects cause transfer effects of understanding -- endorsed specificity of learning; him and woodworth together changed education towards task specific teaching vs. non specific examples and everything in one course He created and wanted a deliberate school founding of behaviorism Indeed, he married a 19 year old student when he was a TA (v. impulsive); after years in marriage, publically fell in love with grad student Rosalie grainer; asked to resign from j Hopkins due to scandal Called for new direction in psychology drastic change away from introspection; consciousness is irrelevant to science and behavior Personality tests don't measure person, but their response to the stimuli of taking a test denied existence of instincts (until later); his opinions and interests changed dramatically over the years; indeed, he reflected the shifting times-- didn’t become stuck in his research -- influential for so long because he wasn’t steadfast, but rather, was flexible Thought processes should be reduced to motor behavior -- measure tongue during thinking processes -- we speak without entire body - -we learn what rise of eyebrow ad pauses and shoulder patterns mean (sub vocal patterns and habits) Also suggested that we talk to ourselves in our mind, and so we learn how to speak by thinking the thoughts first and then speaking them William McDougall “hormic” nature: beh that satisfies needs; behavior isn't only piece; we goal seek, and turn to objects in environment to satisfy our needs -- not just stimulus response -- mental behavior and social environment should be correlated with physiology role of instincts …when everyone else is environment Against the zeitgeist: role of instincts when everyone else is environment debated Watson when he was loved Paranormal study - telepathy, clairvoyance (established parapsych lab at Duke) Social psychology: how to derive meaning or accuracy of behavior without introspection, how to explain pleasure, daydreams Questioned lack of free choice or change after childhood Interestingly, during last month of his death, kept a pain journal, and also discussed how others were reacting to him; his analysis of death process has been used as model for going through the death process -- (some people dance with joy when death -- some hire wailers-- when do we discover death as children) We need introspection Emphasized role of instincts (when everyone else was environment-centric) Large debate with Watson at psych club when everyone else was entranced by Watson; "how can we derive meaning or accuracy without introspection" how to explain pleasure and daydreaming; Watson was more persuasive Questioned lack of free choice to change after childhood and the permanentness of that Argument: war is inevitable then - why do anything creative -- where does it come from -- why set personal goals Unfortunately, although his argument made sense, zeitgeist against him It wasn't his time. 1930s: The Rise of Neobehaviorism: the development of learning theories by the “radical behaviorists” Hull, Tolman, Skinner, Guthrie. Endorsed: study of learning; beh is result of conditioning Adopt operationism: objective terminology, “discard pseudoproblems” Edward Chace Tolman dissatisfied with gestalt, Watson’s-style of beh. Purposive Behaviorism: beh. Is driven toward some goal/purpose Between S-R = intervening variables from the organism; cognitions, expectancies, purpose, appetite Define, acceptably measure unobservable internal states Learning – cognitive familiarity/comprehensive pictures/“map”; sign Gestalt: in learning, we create a cognitive familiarity -- a comprehensive picture or cognitive map; an organism understands the lay of the land, not just in terms of turning at specific junctures Not just motor habits/muscular patterns of responding Was trained under structuralism and introspection -- became dissatisfied with both He loved mazes -- built them, thought the world was a giant maze (like the Kenn
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