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PSYC 312 (13)


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University of British Columbia
PSYC 312
Andrea Perrino

PSYC 312: HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE 1 need to know general era; not specific dates INTRO TO HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY...WHY STUDY THIS STUFF? WHY THIS STUFF? common requirement historical focus unique among the sciences area of specialization: PhD is history of psych; journals; formal organizations (APA division 26) ***there will be more books than journals on history of psych for the paper reflect/utilize in psychology career: perhaps avoid the mistakes (who figured out to use what and when and why), improve on the existing research; healthy skepticism: critically analyze new ideas and techniques; cant anticipate future directions RATIONALE FOR STUDYING HISTORY OF PSYCHOLOGY recognizes diversity within psychology synthesizes psychology's disparate elements: integrates topics and issues emphasizes relationships that make the whole area cohesive (stimulated, perplexed by the same issues as our ancestors) understand origins of jargon and technologies (how and when and why did someone come up a theory or statistic?) trace progression of ideas and developments: this changes and history isn't fixed (more information comes to life as new pieces of information are found) RATIONALE CONT. appreciation of the people, events and experiences that shape the present links "human beings"/characters to the classical theories, schools, thought interesting and exciting as its own topic--sex and drugs, the weird and unusual, the astounding! gain perspective on our own world, our place in it DATA AND HISTORY History= it is interpreted, it isnt all about facts; interpretive study of events of the past (both empirical and explanatory) historiography= the principles, methods, and philosophical issues of historical research (how do we collect data and interpret it). We want to understand what happened, but not judge WHERE DOES THE DATA COME FROM? self documented witnesses (other academics, family/friends), media (photographs and articles) written (articles, letters, diaries), photos, newspapers, auditory (interiews), equipment/apparatus, personal effects unique: not replicable, conditions not controlled materials used to reconstruct lives, events, eras IS THIS DATA ACCURATE? not could be: 1. Lost: permanently (burned, tossed) or temporarily (stored); written long after events=falliable/degraded/reconstructed memories 2. suppressed: Freud's material to be opened in the 21st century (protecting the clients, protecting their families) 3. ignored: studies and results not documented (not published) due to lack of findings or too cntroversial/unusual for the time 4. altered: to protect- kohler's papers (he was writing anti-nazi letters to berlin), Freud's cocaine use 5. distorted: by a translator: Freud's use of ich (I), einfall (intrusion); lack of equivalents between languages: zeitgeist, gestalt; by the person: Stanley Hall's bitter age and failing health (as he got older he distorted some information and his papers were less well written); by a participant; by an observer 6. self serving: skinner gave the impression that he was the best student ever (reported as wholly "nose to the grindstone"); freuds self depiction as a martyr to his cause 7. reader/presentist bias: discuss, analyze, interpret the oast in terms of present personal and cultural knowledge and perspectives; bias against women/religion/ethnicity was cultural norm, past individual reflects the milieu lots of jewish profs changed their names; women reported not being married THUS; we use multiple sources and accept that this is all we have unless we find something else... APPROACHES TO SCIENTIFIC HISTORY to attribute progress and change in scientific history to... 1. personalistic theory: to the ideas of unique, charismatic, intelligent, creative individuals OR 2. naturalistic theory: to the ortgeist (place) and zeitgeist (time), which makes a culture receptive to some ideas but not others; AKA the spirit of the times ***know the term zeitgeist (evidence? discovery multiples, "rediscoveries") OR 3. historical development: to show how various events or individuals contributed to change in an idea or concept over several years (ex. how mental illness changed throughout history) UNDRSTANDNG HISTORY=UNDERSTANDING CONTEXTUAL FORCES The Zeitgeist: "the intellectual and cultural climate or spirit of the times"=an evolutionary and present process of change and adaptation to the constantly varying demands of the environment... Economics: job availability, grants, birthrates War: testing, flee/exile to different country, aid efforts (selection), witness to destruction (Freud: thanatos=death instinct) Prejudice: no jews, african americans or women allowed, area of study/activism SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT; THE EVOLUTION OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY school of thought= a group of psychologists who become associated ideologically, and/or geographically, with the leader of the movement; they share theoretical, systematic positions, but in between them, different schools of thought become very clear; differing definitions of psychology between them (ex. behaviourism, psychoanalysis, humanistic) HOW DOES SCIENCE CHANGE? THOMAS KUHN (1970) THE STRUCTURE OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTIONS.."PARADIGM SHIFT" Preparadigmatic phase: divided into (rival) schools of thought, competing viewpoints; pointing out predecessor's errors, and offers new definitions, concepts, research methods... Paradignatic phase: more mature/advanced stage in the development of a science. The majority of schientists agree on theoretica and methodological issues Paradigm=an accepted way of thinking within a scientific discipline that provides essential questions and answers Revolutionary phase: alteration of the current order, an existing paradigm is displaced by another WHERE IS PSYCHOLOGY NOW, THEN? Argues: Preparadigmic: heterogeneity and fragmentation, still characterize us (developmental, cognitive, evolutionary..etc) Coexisting Paradigms: no need for homogeneity across disciplines, revolution within sub-disciplines acceptable The development of modern psychology Psychology is both: an ancient 2,500 year-old discipline, and a "new" discipline Early Chinese Psychologies Lao-Tze - who wrote Tao te Ching ; how we should return to nature and find the way of thinking Confusionism (551-479 B.C.) Worldview organized around a number 5: elements, sense organs, sensations (sight, vision, hearing, touch, taste), colours (red, yellow, green, black, white)-smells-sounds, emotions (joy, sorrow, anger, desire, fear), human relations (father-son, elder brother-younger brother, student-ruler, husband-wife, child-father) He was known for his wisdom and honesty Moral life, he was committed to harmony within ourselves and within the world around us Hsün Tzu (289-212 B.C.) Argued rational, empirical methods, not superstition and mere beliefs Learning important in human life (evil first, learn to be good) Philosophy/psychology: yin & yang, the opposite and complimentary Maintain Balance for physical and psychological well-being Mind dominant over servant body; psychological properties are just as important as physical well being Therapies: acupuncture, organ therapy (try to find balance) Babylonia Divergent explanations: empirical (math, astronomy, medicne, language, etc. They could predict eclipses, showed accurate human anatomy) and magical-religious numerous major and minor gods and demons: diverse, associated with all life aspects, magic rites, prayer, incantations, priest/priestess Insanity caused by demon "Idta", exorcisms through medicine, confessions, magic rites Prevention and treatment: ward off with charms, symbols, virtuous behaviour, avoid women with powers (all women were thought to have powers which could be released at any time, and women were the only ones who could unlease devils to inhabit people) Egypt Polytheistic - worship everything (plants, animals, planets, people...) Immortality: mummification, burial customs; believed that the mind and soul remained after death and that it was important to nurture them Heart is centre of mental activity (emotions), head is subservient First to provide description of the brain in the sense of what it could be used for: head injurues=speech, memory disorderrs Medicine blend of superstition and empiricism Insects, filth, devils=disease. You become ill when you are "sick in the head" Treat with rituals, incantations, rest, surgery, enemas, medicine (topical-dung, honey, blood, organs..) Hygiene emphasized: they practiced circumscision and fumigation of the vagina (put smoke and insense under the vagina to bring the uterous back to resting position) Emotional disorders caused by "wandering uterus" (it wanders to other parts of your body, which causes illness; it wanders because it is looking for conception, moistness) Hebrews radicalmonotheism: one god Scholarly religious activity emphasized Discussed concept of moral insanity/psychopathy: due to punishment from god Mental illness: caused by anger of God, initiated by human disobedience Caused by anger, initiated by human disobedience Child rearing Gift from God, unless defects (real or imagined); sacrificed, sold Duty to parents (honor thy mother and thy father) and if you didnt and you were rebellious you would be put to death The Greeks (600-300B.C.) Cosmology: nature of the universe; introduction to evolution, atomic theory, psychology was speculated Thales - water=primal substance which everything comes from, tried to make up a natural and unnatural explanation for movement (magnetic soul) Anaximenes - soul is rarefied air (it is different for different people; different densities), holds body & world together Pythagoras - coined "philo(love)sophy (knowledge)"; brain holds mental life used music as therapy when we feel upset or angry transmigration of souls: you are what you eat and each food because the cause of disposition; he suggested we shouldnt eat animals at all because in doing so we might eat the soul of an ancestor many prohibitions: laughter only in open rooms, you do not put your left shoe on first, wearing rings, eating beans... Parmenides -philosophy of being, senses may be illusory, mechanisms of perception (we perceive from what is in us, from an opposition of what is in us to what is outside); perceive light due to fire within us Rational and Mystical continue to collide Human strength and weakness attributed to Gods Apollo = medicine; Hygieia = health there were many temples for therapy (like spas): hot and cold contrast baths, blood letting, massages sleep, diet, massage/baths, dreams, snakes as a symbol of mystery power and knowledge Hippocrates - founder of medicine he kept extremely detailed records - Physical and psych. disease from imbalance of elements: fire, earth, air, water; balance between black bole, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm (the humor's; all imbalances can lead to physical or mental illness) dreams represent activity of the soul; can indicate illness (if there is a greater contrast between reality and your dreams there is a greater chance of illness) classified mania, melancholia, paranoia, epilepsy treatments: honey, exercise, laughter, blooding, surgery (trephination to allow air holes and reduce pressure on te head) Socrates He was thought to have corrupted the youth, denied Gods, criticized leaders opposed to just accepting thr politics of the time "slef knowledge is vital to our virtue" and we obtain knowledge from perception and analysis he was an interactionist and claimed multiple causes of behaviour: mental, physical, and social Plato - psyche (psuche) = soul, mind/immortal He believed in the pursuit of justice he believed the mind has higher (rational processes, being an adult) & lower (appetite, childishness) activities memory - storage, retrieval properties (soul acts as a wax slate; we remember and remember well if the impression is deep within the wax) motivation - motivated by pleasure, pain, appetite, fear (not a long term motivator; this causes the most discor) mental disorders - due to ignorance, imbalances (you need a balance of the rational [head; reasonable thougt] and irrational [in our gut, appetite; animalistic]) love - we search for beauty, wisdom love Aristotle father of zooology he wanted to understand different causes; what is our purpose - material cause is what is it made of, formal cause is the shape or the identifying features of something, efficient cause is what set something in motion (ex. a wind pushes the tree over), final cause is the purpose *****know these causes for test soul function- vegetative, sensitive soul (pain, pleasure, perceiving), rational (we can be passive or active) physiological psych - interdependent soul-body memory - impressions/pictures; recollection techniques (laws); we create an image and it can be imprinted on us by the quality of the memory depends on the receiving surface (as you age your surface gets worse and so does your memory); he believed there could be active recollection of memory, another type can occur without recollection called spontaneous recollection sensation – medium, perceptual illusions (ex. skin and tongue are the medium in order to have touch) individual differences: he believed we can have differences betwen us motivation and happiness- social support, attractiveness, relationships, persistence and having good habits "effort can lead to joyth The Roman Period (7 century B.C. – 476 A.D.) Stoicism – cooperate with universe, fate: reactive/passive soul; martyrs ndured pain for service. Humans are fools and they should suppress themselves and do things only to appease gods Epicureanism - life goal is happiness, avoid pain: soul operates through the physiology of the body. Express yourself as long as it is fair to other peope. Sensation is important Cynicism - reject social convention and live naturally: Diogenes is the son of a money changer for defacing coins, his goal was to deface all faces and he said "a slave is no different than a king" and chose to like like a dog and was called a cynic (meaning canine) Neoplatonism - soul seeks dominance over body by rejecting material and finding universal truth in God body is agent & prison to the soul; soul is capable of reason but it needs the body to relay sensation to it Hypatia - sacred woman (exalted virginity) she was a celebrated mathmatician. She was remembered for her expertise in geometry and astronomy. She used music as therapy. Hypatia came under the suspician of the church and was murdered and her teaching wasnt allowed to be studied The Middle Ages (Medieval Psych) Christianity Dualism returns, take authoritative, administrative form (religious, political, cultural life) Inquisition, censorship, torture or death (if it didnt coincide with the thoughts of the church there must have been an error in your work) "Error" in work, mentally ill/socially incompetent Scholars worked in secret, halt intellectual progress humans distinct from nature (chance for salvation, immortality) ritual, candles, incense, procession, veneration to saints good and bad periods for papal power, beliefs (violence; fall of Western empire) The Renaissance (approx. 1450-1600) Ushered in by the plague (AKA black death); considered a medical holocaust Jews were blamed for the plague Also people thought that the plague was caused by people who thought that god was punishing them and caused self inflicted pain THe black death testd beliefs because even the preists were dying Humanism- glorify humanity individualism, personal religion, interest in past (people used music for their sorrow and for their happiness) people- power to change, choose, improve the world rejection of rules/dogma, criticized church reflected in art, literature, music (ex. daVinci) th Reformation and beyond - Luther, Calvin, King Henry 8 , Machiavelli, Shakespeare, Copernicus, Marco Polo, Megellan… Luther: opposed the churces indulgences (if you paid a certain amount you could be atoned for your sins) King henry 8th: he wanted a divorce which the curch did not allow Marco Polo: exploration of africa, asia, india fragmentation of christianity: caused by everyone disagreeing with the church reduced fear: people exploring renewed interest in science, truth through reason, value of human intellect Philosophical Influences The 17th century- 19th spirit..… Mechanism = all natural processes are mechanically determined; can be explained World is measurable and has predictable order observation, experimentation, measurement: space, temperature, time--clocks Originated in physics (Galileo, Newton) Science=measurement Physical effect must have a physical cause The Universe as a Machine Determinism acts are caused by past events; order, regularity in each parts’ function understand the process=predict future Reductionism understand function by disassembling analyze simplest parts for understanding it Automata mechanical figures - mimicked human beh., entertainment and production culturally pervasive models for human beings: the body is machine made by God human functioning, beh. governed by mechanical laws experimental/quantitative methods of physics apply to studying human nature Babbage The machine t
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