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psyc 314 aids.doc

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University of British Columbia
PSYC 314
Frances Chen

psyc 314:Aids AIDS Different types of Immunity: Natural Specific All-purpose Attacks one specific Attack variety of pathogens pathogen Not antigen-specific Antigen-specific Immediate response Delayed response No immunologic Immunologic memory memory Macrophages, neutrophils, B cells, Tc cells, natural killer cells Th cells Natural immunity: general responsiveness in response to many pathogens.All purpose general defence (vagocytosis--engulfing them). Immediate response. Responds to things which are seen not as self. They do not remember what the pathogens are for future reference. Natural Killer cells Specific immunity: receptor cites on their cell which can only attack only one type of invader/ angtogen. When the pathogen enters the body the specific cells notice it and divide in order to fight the invaders. Delayed response b/c of their need to divide (it takes days). Immunologic memory: they are able to remember a type of pathogen in order to respond faster if they are invaded again. B cells -- humoral immunity (when they respond to pathogens by producing antibodies) T cells -- cellular immunity (Tc-- secrete toxic substances which cause them to kill infected cells. Th cells -- T helper cells secrete cytokines which enhance the production of other cells, help proliferation of B cells) Measures of the immune System: • Enumerative – e.g., # of natural killer cells • In vitro functional – e.g., natural killer cell cytotoxicity • In vivo functional – e.g., response to vaccine Enumerative: counting the number of some type of cell. Don’t tell you how well the immune system works in vitro functional: take blood out of a person and do something to stimulate the blood to measure the functionality. (You are doing this outside of the person) In vivo functional: doing it in the person’s body and not in the test tube. You are measuring how well the immune system is responding ex. delayed type hypersensitivity test: inject person with antigen and if that person is allergic to that substance the skin will swell and become red stress and the immune system ACUTE STRESS • Upregulation of natural immunity • Downregulation of specific immunity If a stress is acute and only takes a short amount of time you want to have a response from the natural immune system BRIEF NATURALISTIC STRESSORS • Increase in humoral immunity • Decrease in cellular immunity brief naturalistic stressor: they last and are stressful in the moment but then it ends (ex. studying and taking a test): increase in humoral immunity (B cells) and decrease in cellular immunity (T cells) CHRONIC STRESS • Downregulation of innate immunity • Downregulation of cellular immunity • Downregulation of humoral immunity Chronic stressor: dowregulation of everything. Chronic stress takes so much of a tole that your immune system cannot respond anymore Aids: acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome • Caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) • HIV attacks he
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