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psyc 320 lecture 53.doc

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PSYC 320
Sunaina Assanand

Psyc 320 Lecture 53 By the end of today’s class you should be able to: 1. Review explanations for sex differences in global self esteem 2. Identify sex differences in domain-specific forms of self esteem 3. Define the term morbidity paradox 4. Discuss sex differences in mortality rates across the life span among Canadians 5. Contrast sex differences in mortality rates in developed and developing countries Are there sex differences in self esteem (Cont.)? Adolescence shows a particularly hard time for both sexes; but a greater difficulty for females Explanations for the lower levels of global self esteem among females than males: 1. Gender roles: masculinity is positively correlated with global SE among males and females. Femininity is not correlated with global SE among males and females. Key factors of masculinity: confidence, autonomy, self assertion; there is no surprise that these are correlated with SE 2. Imbalances in cross sex interactions in childhood: sex segregation is evident in preschool years and this is reinforced by adults. Boys play associated with aggression, self assertion. Girls are more courteous and use polite suggestion. Girls feel relatively powerless when they interact with young boys because boys do not respond to their courteous demands. Because girls aren’t as direct with their needs they do not gain access to as many resources 3. Differential treatment of boys and girls in school: boys receive negative attention from their teachers in order to force them to fulfill the role of a good student characterized by femininity. Boys also receive the bulk of the positive attention in by focusing questions towards them. Females do not get sufficient attention from their teacher, silencing young girls; affecting their confidence.Also teachers attribute male successes to abilities and female successes to effort 4. Differential athletic participation by boys and girls: athletic participation is associated with higher self esteem. There are more athletic opportunities among boys than girls. Girls don’t receive the opportunity to receive this boost in their self esteem 5. Pervasive violence against girls and women: rates of domestic violence are decreasing. Women a victim of domestic violence have higher levels of depression. This violence undermines women’s self esteem 6. Cultural emphasis on appearance among females: society emphasizes unrealistic beauty and body shape among females. Both sexes are adversely affected by negative images portrayed. Females report higher levels of body dissatisfaction than boys starting in grade 4. Body dissatisfaction is so pervasive that it is normative to feel discontent with your body--it has become the norm Female self esteem is not substantially lower than males Body dissatisfaction is so common among females that it has been termed a “normative discontent” Ne
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