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psyc 320 lecture 55.doc

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PSYC 320
Sunaina Assanand

psyc 320 lecture 55 By the end of today’s class you should be able to: 1. Discuss sex differences in illness related behaviour 2. Review biological factors that may contribute to sex differences in mortality and morbidity 3. Describe the impact of exogenous estrogen administration on health 4. Distinguish between X-linked recessive diseases and autoimmune diseases 5. Review health behaviours that may contribute to sex differences in mortality and morbidity 2. Morbidity (cont.): • Females report more illness related behaviour than males: days in bed due to illness, use of prescription drugs, restriction of activities, use of health care services • In childhood, illness behaviour is greater among males than females. The sex difference reverses in adolescence with females reporting greater illness behaviour • In childhood males more likely to employ health care services and more likely to show greater illness behaviour. Too express illness goes against the male gender role and therefore parents view it as a greater problem or more severe illness when their son expresses illness What factors account for sex differences in health? There are three groups of factors that account for the documented sex differences in health: 1. Biological factors: a) Genes: girls XX (may serve as an advantage in health) vs males XY. X linked recessive disorders - the presence of a dominant gene on the X chromosome will mute the expression of the disorder; males do not have another X chromosome that may suppress the expression of the recessive X linked gene XX vs. XY: Having a second X chromosome suppresses the expression of many diseases among females (e.g., haemophilia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Wiskott- Aldrich syndrome, Menkes disease, Fragile X syndrome). - fragile X: categorized as autism spectrum - menkes: hair is colourless. Difficulties associated with internal organs, blood vessels that feed the brain may lead to early stroke b) Hormones: estrogen may have some health protective effects (particularly against heart disease).After menopause, estrogen replacement therapy is associated with an increased risk of heart disease, breast cancer, and blood clots. Women of higher SES were more likely to get hormone therapy and was acting as a third variable to make it appear that hormone replacement therapy was beneficial. Research assessing the influence of estrogen on health has produced mixed findings: Prior to menopause, the relatively high levels of estrogen among females appear to serve as a protective
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