Psyc 320 lecture 56
By the end of today’s class you should be able to:
1. Review health behaviours that may contribute to sex differences in mortality and
2. Discuss trends across time in smoking and lung cancer rates
3. Explain the greater susceptibility to smoking related lung cancer among females
4. Review the stages of the worldwide tobacco epidemic
5. Explain the poorer quit rates of smoking among females than males
What factors account for sex differences in health?
2. Health behaviours
b) Smoking: 1/5 Canadians have regular tobacco use. Females smoke less than males.
Smoking rates have decreased over time. In the 1950's women smoked half as much as
males.After the women’s movement women took up smoking at a higher rate than men
Today women are initiating smoking at a higher rate than males and are quitting at a
slower rate than males. Tobacco companies now that men have hit their peek for
smoking cigarettes and now they are putting a higher emphasis on selling cigarettes to
Males (24.3%) smoke more than females (18.5%), which may contribute to the higher
mortality rate among males. However, the sex gap in smoking rates is decreasing:
Smoking rates have decreased over the last several decades. Today, 21.4% of
Canadians smoke (Statistics Canada, 2009).
Females who smoke are at greater risk for developing lung cancer than males who
smoke (odds ratio of developing lung cancer = 1.2 – 1.7; Ernster, 1996; Shriver et al.,
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among males and females (Statistics
Intervention studies have shown that males are more successful at quitting smoking than
females (Bjornson et al., 1995; Wetter et al., 1999).
Tobacco use has more detrimental effects on the health of females than it does on the
health of males; females with the same level of tobacco use are more likely than males
to develop lung cancer
Gastrin-releasing peptide: this is a protein that is genetically produced/expressed on the
X chromosome. This pep