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psyc 320 lecture 58.doc

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PSYC 320
Sunaina Assanand

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Psyc 320 lecture 58 By the end of today’s class you should be able to: 1. Review health behaviours that may contribute to sex differences in mortality and morbidity 2. Discuss trends across time in overweight and obesity rates 3. Describe gynoid obesity and android obesity 4. Discuss sex differences in exercise levels 5. Review gender-related factors that contribute to sex differences in mortality and morbidity 6. Define the nurturant role hypothesis What factors account for sex differences in health? (cont.) d) Overweight, obesity, and exercise: Healthy vs. unhealthy weight is determined by the body mass index (BMI): BMI= 2 weight (kg) / height (m ). Overweight = BMI of 25-29.9 and obese = BMI greater than or equal to 30 The most common index employed to identify weight, healthy weight, etc. is the BMI (body mass index) -- this is a problematic index because it doesn’t take into account muscle weight vs. fat (those who have more muscles have more mass and therefore may be identified as overweight according the BMI) The rates of obesity have increased Males are more likely than females to be overweight. Males and females do not differ in rates of obesity Females are more likely to exhibit gynoid obesity, whereas males are more likely to exhibit android obesity Android obesity poses a greater threat to health than gynoid obesity Kids who watch TV for more than 4 hours a day are more at risk The primary increase has been in levels of obesity, not in levels of people being overweight Males are more likely to be overweight; there are no sex differences in obesity Sex differences in weight: healthy weight: F>M overweight: M>F obesity: M=F (in the most extreme levels of obesity females>males) many adverse health consequences with being overweight and obese Males and females hold fat in different areas: women carry excess fat of the lower half of their body (hips, butt, thighs: gynoid obesity) males carry excess weight around the abdominal (android obesity): this results in more adverse health consequences, one of which is increased insulin resistance these different distributions have distinct health implications this difference in distribution of fat is thought to be a result of estrogen levels the psychological and social consequences for being overweight are greater for women than for men--both sexes are affected. Females who are overweight are less likely to marry, more likely to live in poverty, more likely to have a lower income job, have lower education Increasingly people are spending more time indoors and engaging in less physical activity Males tend to engage in more physical activity than females across the lifespan The sex differences
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