Psyc 320 Lecture 66
By the end of today’s class you should be able to:
1. Generate global examples of gender based exploitation, violence, and oppression
2. Discuss global efforts to eliminate gender-based exploitation, violence, and oppression
3. Define gender development index (GDI) and gender empowerment measure (GEM)
4. Discuss Canada’s relative ranking on the GDI and GEM
5. Identify action that you may take against gender based exploitation, violence, and oppression
Final exam: 20% of final grade. Total /50. 20 Multiple choice. Short answer questions ranging from 2-8
points. On chapters: 11 (p. 294-299), 13, 14, 15, 16
What forms of exploitation, violence, and oppression occur within and beyond Canada’s borders:
Rwanda: Males were subject to sex-selective massacre by the “genocidaires” (Carpenter, 2006).
“Genocidaires” sex selection massacres. Death whether or not they were civilian or military. Males
were gunned down whether or not they were involved in the movement, just because they were males.
After the war 70% of the Rwandan population was female.
“The opening blast of the genocide was accompanied by an injunction not to repeat the ‘mistake’ of the
1959 revolution, when male children had been spared only to return as guerilla fighters” (Jones, 2001).
Saudi Arabia: Females are not permitted to drive and cannot travel without the permission of a male
guardian (Slavin, 2009). Females are not permitted to drive and they are not allowed to leave the
country without permission from a male guardian (women are actively fighting these laws)
Turkey: Each year, at least 200 females are the victims of honour killings (Moore, 2001). Honor Killings:
more frequent females (most often male family member, will premeditate a plan and kill another person
in the family who has brought shame upon her family—often through sexually inappropriate behaviour).
The UN estimates there are 5000 honour killings a year (Kristof & WuDunn, 2009).
Ukraine: More than 70% of unemployed individuals are female. Hundreds of thousands of unemployed
females have been transported to the West; one-fifth have sex trafficked (Kutova, 2000). Women have
to live abroad in order to seek employment (many of these women end up being trafficked into the sex
trade) US: 22% of women who report that their age at first intercourse was less than 15 indicate that it was not
voluntary (Lips, 2006).
Yugoslavia: Adolescent and adult males were subject to summary execution, forced conscription into
military service, rape, and sexual mutilation. Forced conscription of the males into military service
(males are expected to serve their country and