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psyc 320 lecture 48.doc

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PSYC 320
Sunaina Assanand

Psyc 320 lecture 48 By the end of todays class you should be able to: 1. Distinguish between supply-side theory and demand-side theory 2. Discuss sex differences in work place negotiations 3. Define the terms: accumulation of disadvantage, maternal wall, and marital bonus 4. Discuss sex similarities in job satisfaction 5. Discuss factors that contribute to job satisfaction among females who encounter discrimination in the work place what form of discrimination are encountered in the workplace? 2 theories have been proposed to account for pay discrepancies across the sexes: 1. supply side theory (Human Capital Theory): Maintains that the characteristics of males and females account for pay inequities Examples of characteristics of males and females (i.e.,”supply-side characteristics”) that may contribute to pay inequities: Educational background: no longer viable Occupational choice: however, within occupations females are paid less than males occupational experience number of hours worked negotiation of salary: females are less likely than males to engage in salary negotiation Gerhart and Rynes (1991) found that males’negotiations led to a 4.3% yearly salary increase, whereas females’negotiations led to a 2.7% yearly salary increase: focus on the worker. what the worker brings toy the work force educational background: it used to be thought that women brought a lower education level to the work force. This is no longer viable Occupational choice: women choose the lower paying jobs. This cant be the case because men, in womens oriented work, get more money Occupational experience: women often have family obligations (take time off work when they have kids), they start work later. When they return to the workforce they have to start at a new place number of hours worked: on average women work 4-5 hours less per week. This may contribute to lower advancement in the work place which may lead to lower salaries Negotiation of salary: men are more likely to negotiate for higher salaries and are larger then when women negotiate and men are less likely to concede to their employer. women have low levels of negotiation b/c: they do not know their worth in the workplace, they didnt believe they deserved to be payed more than others, they feel that if they work hard they will get what they deserve (meritocracy), they fear if they negotiate too hard that they will compromise their relaionship with their employer, they feel very anxious during the negotiations Females are less likely to engage in salary negotiations than males because they are more likely to: 1. feel unsure of their worth 2. believe that they do not deserve to be paid more than others 3. believe in meritocracy 4. believe that conflict with jeopardize their negation relationship 5. experience anxiety during the negotiation 2. Demand-side theory: focus on the environment in which the person is situated. Discrimination on variaour grounds including sex. forms of discrimination that are related to sex, but arent sex Employers anticipate that their female employees will not leave their job b/c of familial ties. If female employees are paid less they still wont leave Employers pay mothers less than fathers b/c they assume women wont be able to commit themselves as well to their job as the fathers. Fathers will show greater commitment to the job b/c of their status of breadwinner so they are paid more. This is called the maternal wall or motherhood penalty Findings about the maternal wall: employed mother are seen as less competent and committed than fath
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