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psyc 320 lecture 51.doc

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PSYC 320
Sunaina Assanand

Psyc 320 Lecture 51 By the end of today’s class you should be able to: 1. Distinguish between an independent and an interdependent self-construal Discuss the relationship between self-construals and responsiveness to evaluative feedback Distinguish between “optimistic” and “pessimistic” attributional styles Consider the consequences of optimistic and pessimistic attributional styles Discuss sex differences in attributional styles Are there sex differences in responsiveness to evaluative feedback (Cont.)? • Explanation for greater susceptibility of females than males to evaluative feedback: sex differences in self-construals • Females are more responsive to others evaluations • Self-construal--schemas about the self. What we pay attention to, what we encode into our memory, etc • Different self construals occur in different sexes: men have an independent self construal: characterized by a stable fixed entity that is constant across domains and stays stable across significant social relationships. Fits into ideals for men to be individuals and autonomous; females have interdependent self construal: self seen as malleable and flexible. Defining attributes determined by ones interactions • Independent vs interdependent self construals (markus and kitayama): males more likely to show themselves doing activities which they enjoy and with items which they value. Females more likely to show themselves with others. • Independent self construal: definition of self is free from social context; structure of self is stable, bounded, and unitary; primary tasks are uniqueness, expression of internal attributes, promotion of personal goals; role of others is for self evaluation (social comparison); basis of self esteem is from ability to express oneself and ones internal attributes • Interdependent self-construal: definition of self is tied to social context; structure of self is variable, flexible, anf fluid; primary tasks are fitting in, self restraint, promotion of others goals; role of others is self definition; basis of self esteem is the ability to restrain oneself and maintain harmony with others • Theorists maintain that social norms cultivate the independent self construal among males and interdependent self construals among females • Sommer and Baumeister: believe that these construals dont accuratelt represent men • Collective idntities: more common among males. Men are defining self in relation to others in a collective sense (defining self with collective belonging--they relate to being part of a group--define self as a soccer player, going to UBC, being part of a fraternity, etc.) • Relational (Dyadic) identities: more common among females. Females self identity is defined by one other person. They define self as a type (a daughter, a friend, a co- worker, etc.) Do males and females make different attributions for success and failure? • Attributions for success and failure vary along three dimensions: internality (internal vs. external cause), stability (stable vs. unstable cause), and globality (global vs. speci
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