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Psychology 320 lecture 29.docx

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PSYC 320
Sunaina Assanand

Psychology 320 lecture 29 Do females and males differ in their cognitive abilities? (cont) Verbal ability: female have more vocab in their first year. Verbal ability has been assessed in many different forms. It was found in the wechsler’s verbal intelligence scale (digit recall items, comprehension items, arithmetic computation out loud) that females score higher than males; however, this effect size is –0.2 which is suggestive of a small effect size. The sex difference which is the most notable difference is in writing ability where females are greater than males, d value of -0.58. Males are 3 to 4 times more likely to stutter. Dyslexia is more common among males The above sex differences are relatively stable across time; however, the magnitude of the sex differences has been decreasing. Overall, the sex difference among all components of verbal ability is -0.11 with is a negligible and small sex difference Mathematical ability: there is a slight difference in arithmetic computation where females are greater than males (in terms of the basic math abilities) In geometry males exceed females; however the d value is -0.14 Problem solving males are greater than males Females, across the years, get better grades in math classes; however, in standardized math tests males perform better Mathematical paradox refers to the fact that females outperform males in the classroom; however, males outperform females on standardized tests. Explanations for this: 1. Test format: research has shown that males outperform females when there are multiple choice questions and when there are time restraints 2. Use of conventional vs. Unconventional strategies: research shows that females excel in math problems which apply strategies taught to them in the classroom, whereas males use unconventional strategies when answering questions 3. Mastery vs. performance orient
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